Measuring Reaction Rate using Volume of Gas Produced
By John Doe
23th October 2012
An essential element of chemistry is finding reaction rates. This is because chemists need to know how long a reaction should take. In addition to needing to know the rate of a reaction at any point in time to monitor how the reaction is proceeding.
Many factors effect reaction rates, two shown above include temperature and concentration. Concentration affects the rate of reactions because the more concentrated a solution the more likely collisions between particles will be. This is simply because there are more particles present to collide with each other. When the temperature is higher, particles will have more energy. This means that more reactions will happen for two reasons, firstly more particles will come into contact with each other because they are moving around more and secondly because the reactions occur at higher speed making it more likely to succeed.
A few other factors are the surface area and if a catalyst is present. The larger the surface area the more collisions will occur because there are more places for molecules to react with each other. A catalyst affects the rate of reaction not by increasing the number of collisions, but by making more of the collisions that do occur successful.
Ordinary household bleach is an aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite, NaClO, this contains little more than 5% NaClO by mass. Bleaching is caused by the ion. Under normal circumstances this ion breaks down slowly giving off oxygen gas and the chloride ion, .
In order to speed up this reaction a catalyst is needed. In this experiment the catalyst used was cobalt (II) nitrate solution. When this is added to the bleach a black precipitate of cobalt (III) nitrate is formed which acts as a catalyst for the decomposition of The purpose of this experiment was to determine how concentration of reactants and temperature...