Theory
The first experiment focused on the concept of errors and uncertainties that are obtained during measurements. For an experiment to be successful, especially those that involve measurements, the number of significant figures must be known. Significant figures are the digits required to express a measured quantity and thus reflect the accuracy of the measurement. Uncertainty is defined as the smallest increment that can be measured and is defined by the instrument used. An error is defined as any deviation from the standard value. Errors could either be systematic or random. Systematic errors are caused by measurements that are not properly calibrated while random errors are caused by chance.

Methodology

Figure 1: Experimental set-up using vernier caliper

Figure 2: Micrometer caliper
In the experiment, three measuring devices are used to obtain the measurement of a sphere with known composition: vernier caliper, micrometer caliper and a foot rule. Ten individual measurements are then made for each of the device. After the measurements are obtained, the mean diameter of the sphere was calculated using the formula: Mean Diameter = Σdiameter

n

Using this data, the deviation of each measurement was calculated,
d = /reading – mean diameter/
as well as its average deviation
(a.d.) = Σd
n
The volume and the density of the sphere were then calculated using the appropriate formula.
Volume (V) = 4/3πr2
Density = mass
volume
Lastly, the percentage error was determined to show how accurate the measurements have been. %Error =
|experimental value – true value| x 100
|true value|

Theory
The displacement Δx of an object is defined as its change in position and is given by
Δx ＝xf – xi
where xi refers to the initial position of an object and xf refers to the final position of an object and its unit is expressed in meter (m).

The average speed of an object over a given length of time...

...Measurement and Uncertainty
When recording data, each entry should be given a corresponding estimated error, or uncertainty. The uncertainty gives the reader an idea of the precision and accuracy of your measurements. Use the following method for finding the uncertainty associated with any measuring device used in lab.
First, find the least count, or the smallest printed increment, of the measuring device. On the meter sticks, the least count is 1 mm. On the double pan balances, the least count is 0.1 g. On the small graduated cylinders, the least count is 25 ml. If you are using the full precision of the instrument, you are probably safe in saying that your measurement is within one least count of the measured value, in either direction.
Figure 1
For example, say you are measuring the object in Figure 1. If you use the meter stick to measure an object's length as being around 86 mm, that means you are pretty sure that the actual value is between 85 mm and 87 mm. Therefore, you should represent your data like this:
l = 86 mm ± 1 mm
In this case, your uncertainty is ± 1 mm. However, you may feel that you are able to attain more precision than is indicated by the least count. In that case, you should do some estimating. By estimating, you divide the least count of your measuring device into imaginary increments. In this lab, it is recommended that you divide the least count into five imaginary increments. This is called the...

...Experiment 1: Errors, Uncertainties, and Measurements
Joe Mari Isabella Caringal, Rowena Chiang, Khrista Maria Evangelista,
Berthrand Martin Fajardo
Department of Biological Sciences
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
España, Manila, Philippines
Abstract
All measurements contain a certain degree of error. These errors may be categorized as either Random Error or Systematic Error. The source of random error is inherent and can only be minimized through conducting a series of same trials and using statistics. In contrast, systematic error has a known source and can be removed by following the exact procedure given in an experiment. In the experiment done, these errors were observed through the comparison the results of the measurement taken from a single metal sphere using three different measuring devices namely the foot rule, the Vernier caliper, and the micrometer caliper. The metal sphere was subjected to 10 trials for each measuring device. The diameter of the metal sphere was taken and the mean was obtained which are 1.84cm, 1.900cm, 1.8544cm, respectively. Also, the average deviation of the mean was obtained which are 0.016cm, 0.000cm and 0.0018cm, respectively. Given these values, the percentage of error of each device was computed and yielded 0.89%, 0%, 0.10%, respectively.
1. Introduction
All measurements of physical quantities are subjected to errors. Variability in the...

...Abstract
Measurements are subject to errors which can sometimes deviate from the true value of an object. The experiment determined the %error (g/cm3) for density and different measuring data of a sphere through various measuring devices. It also aims to determine the deviation data of the sphere.
Results and Discussion
Table 1. Diameter and Density of Sphere
| Diameter of Sphere (cm) |
Trial | Foot Rule | Vernier Caliper | Micrometer Caliper |
1 | 1.35 cm | 0.16 cm | 1.580 cm | .005 cm | 1.5865 cm | .0002 cm |
2 | 1.50 cm | 0.01 cm | 1.585 cm | 0.00 cm | 1.5865 cm | .0002 cm |
3 | 1.45 cm | 0.05 cm | 1.585 cm | 0.00 cm | 1.5853 cm | .0014 cm |
4 | 1.55 cm | 0.04 cm | 1.590 cm | .005 cm | 1.5860 cm | .0007 cm |
5 | 1.55 cm | 0.04 cm | 1.585 cm | 0.00 cm | 1.5865 cm | .0002 cm |
6 | 1.50 cm | 0.01 cm | 1.585 cm | 0.00 cm | 1.5855 cm | .0012 cm |
7 | 1.50 cm | 0.01 cm | 1.580 cm | .005 cm | 1.5865 cm | .0002 cm |
8 | 1.50 cm | 0.01 cm | 1.590 cm | .005 cm | 1.5915 cm | .0048 cm |
9 | 1.55 cm | 0.04 cm | 1.580 cm | .005 cm | 1.5865 cm | .0002 cm |
10 | 1.60 cm | 0.09 cm | 1.590 cm | .005 cm | 1.5860 cm | .0007 cm |
Mean Diameter | 1.51 cm | 1.585 cm | 1.5867 cm |
Average Deviation (a.d.) | 0.046 | .0030 | .00098 |
Average Deviation of the Mean (A.D.) | 0.015 | .0016 | .00031 |
Volume (cm3) | 1.803 cm3 | 2.089 cm3 | 2.092 cm3 |
Mass (g) | 16.41 g | 16.41 g | 16.41 g |
Experimental Value of Density (g/cm3) | 9.101...

...Instrument used for measurement
Making measurement by usisng some instrument or other is inevitable in physic.Hence, ensuring that careful and accurate reading are obtained for any measurement is of utmost importance.Table below shows some most commonly used instrument for making measurement in physics experiments.
|Physical quantity |Instrument |
|Length |Meter rule |
|Thickness,diameter |Vernier callipers,micrometer screw gauge |
|Mass |Electronic balance,beam balance, spring balance |
|Time |Stop watch |
|Temperature |Thermometer |
|Volume |Measuring cyinder |
|Current |Ammeter |
Uncertainties,Accuracies and Error in measurements
When we take measurement there are always uncertainties in the values.For example the diameter of a pencil is 7.5mm if we use a ruler with mm scale.The rulercan measure up to the nearest...

...Haileab Ghebrekiden, Lucille Emeruem,
Shakira Thomas, Chris Thomas and Brad Steward
9/18/2014
Physics I Lab
Dr. Abdalla
Measurement of Length, Mass Volume and Density
Introduction:
All science is concerned with measurement. "MEASUREMENT" is the determination of the size or magnitude of something "Or" The comparison of unknown quantity with some standard quantity of the same rates is known as measurement. Due to this fact we have standards of measurement. Since the precision of all measuring instruments is limited, the number of digits that can be assumed as known for any measurement is also limited. When making a measurement, read the instrument to its smallest scale division. Accuracy of a result or experimental procedure can refer to the percentage difference between the experimental result and the accepted value. The stated uncertainty in an experimental result should always be greater than this percentage accuracy. In this experiment we will measure length, Mass, Volume and Density using different tools.
Equipment’s:
1) Vernier caliper
2) Triple beam balance
3) Steel cube
4) Cylinder including (Aluminum, brass, copper)
Theory:
The goal of the first part of this experiment is to determine the densities of a number of cylinders, and gain an understanding of how different measurement techniques can affect the reliability of experimental...

...Abstract
Measurements are all subject to error which leads to the uncertainty of the result. Errors may come from systematic errors (deterministic error) or random error (not deterministic error). In this experiment, the group measured the diameter of sphere using different kinds of measuring devices (foot rule, vernier caliper, and micrometer caliper) in order to achieve accuracy in the scientific measurements. After experimenting, it was revealed that the micrometer caliper has the lowest percentage of error.
1. Introduction
In the early days, people used mostly human body parts for measuring. And because the measurement depended on the body size and length of the person measuring, it often leads to varying measurements which leads to inaccuracy and errors in the measurements.
In the following years, a better system of units of measurement was developed – the metric system. The metric system is an international decimalized system of measurement, first adopted in France in 1791. Numerous measuring instruments have this system of measurement. Aside from meter sticks and ruler, the vernier caliper and micrometer caliper also use this system.
The vernier caliper is a measuring device which takes advantage of a vernier scale, a scale used to provide very precise measurements. The vernier adds an extra digit of accuracy to any...

...Experiment 1: Errors, Uncertainties and Measurements
Laboratory Report
Department of Math and Physics
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
Abstract
With the use of the ruler, vernier caliper, micrometer caliper and electronic gram scale, the group was able to acquire different sets of measurements by measuring the sphere of unknown composition. The group then was able to compute its mean diameter, average deviation, average deviation of the mean, volume, mass and % percent error for density in SI unit. Then, the members of the group measured the thumb of each other using the ruler and recorded the data in inches.
1. Introduction
During the ancient times, there were many types of measurements used but it was highly unreliable. It was during the late 1700s to 1800s when the SI unit was found and it became the standard of measurement.
The experiment was designed for studying and analyzing errors and how they occur in an experiment, computing the average deviation, mean and the set of average deviation of the mean, familiarizing and comparing the values produced by the vernier caliper, micrometer and the foot rule, and determining the density of an object given its mass and its volume.
2. Theory
In order to prove that no matter how precise your measurements are, there will always be an error. Also, in this experiment, it also aims to prove that the use of body as a...

...Experiment 1: Errors, Uncertainties and Measurements
Laboratory Report
Kendrick Don Reyes, Myrr Kea Rostrata, Josemarie Emmanuel Roxas, Lindley Susi, Jessica Tabuzo
Department of Biological Sciences
College of Science, University of Santo Tomas
España, Manila Philipines
Abstract
In this experiment, different measuring devices were used, namely the vernier calliper, micrometer calliper, foot rule, and the electronic gram balance. These devices were used to obtain the mean diameter, volume, mass, and the experimental value of density of the sphere of known composition.
1. Introduction
Measurement is the process or act of determining the size, length, quantity, etc. of something being observed or measured. The units of measurement evolved and changed greatly since the day it was made by humans. In different places, these measurements can vary and could well be different from each other. Thus, standards are used nowadays so that we can have a concrete basis and this also prevents fraud or the cheating of somebody especially in business matters.
There are different systems of measurement used. We have this CGS system or known as centimeter-gram-second system which is a metric system derived from the meter-kilogram-second system or mks system. It uses centimeter (c) for
length, gram (g), second (s) for time, dyne for force, and erg for energy. The metric system has become...