Physics 1
Experiment #4: “Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air”
Measurement of the Speed of Sound in Air Writeup
The data on the hand drawn graph, previously shown, fits that of a straight line; this means that there is a linear relationship between the dependent (position) and independent (time) variables. The value of the slope of the line determined by hand is the same as the value obtained from the linear regression done with the calculator because the points chosen were as precise as the graph obtained from excel. The experimental velocity obtained from calculating the slope of the graph of position vs. time measured in lab was found to be: Vexp=34.526 cm/ms
The distance(cm) a sound pulse will travel in a time period of 0.50 ms is calculated by doing the following: d=d0+V0t+12at2
d=0+V0t+0
d=34.526cmms*0.50 ms = 17.263 cm
A light pulse with the speed of 3.00*10^8 will travel in 0.50 ms a distance of :
3.00*108ms*0.0006214 miles1 m=x miles0.50 ms*1000 ms1 s=93.21 miles An experimental measurement with little or no systematic error is said to be of high accuracy. An experimental measurement with little or no random error is said to be of high precision.
The Vaccepted = 346.98 m/sec does not fall within the interval determined by the limits of the precision, as the following is not true for this experiment:
±δV=VexpSDMX
±δV=34.526cmms0.063cm61.362cm=0.035cmms
VaccVexp ≤ δVexp
1.72ms≤0.35ms
In the above formula the error in time can be ignored as the error is associated with consistently centering the sharp peak of the voltage trace on the oscilloscope’s 0.50 ms vertical grid lines. Furthermore, the reason Vaccepted did not fall within the interval determined by the limits of our experimental error determined before, is due to systematic error, which can be a consequence of not accounting for a temperature variable in the tube. In fact if there was a temperature dependence in the tube , the temperature that would be...
...Speed of Sound Lab
Physics 0871
Purpose:
To determine the speed of sound of the classroom, by measuring different wavelength produced by resonance of closed tube via frequencies 256Hz, 512Hz, and 1024Hz.
Hypothesis:
Wavelength of sound wave generated by resonance of closed tube is given by multiplying four times the tube length. By knowing the frequency of sound produced by the closed tube, we can determine the speed of sound by the product of frequency and wavelength. We can achieve this by utilizing tuning forks with specific frequency, and measuring the length of tube where resonance occur.
Method:
Refer to Laboratory Manual Physics 0861  0871, page 26
Material:
Refer to Laboratory Manual Physics 0861  0871, page 26
Diagram:
Data Table:
Best Value
Estimate of Error
Diameter of Tube
3.0cm
±0.1cm
Correction Factor
1.2cm
±0.1cm
Frequency (1)
1024Hz
±1Hz
Measured Length (1)
7.8cm
±0.2cm
Corrected Length (1)
9.0cm
±0.3cm
Wavelength (1)
36.0cm, 0.36m
±1.3cm, ±0.01m
Measured Speed (1)
Speed Max: 383m/s
369m/s
±14m/s
Frequency (2)
512Hz
±1Hz
Measured Length (2)
15.5cm
±0.1cm
Corrected Length (2)
16.7cm
±0.2cm
Wavelength (2)
66.8cm, 0.668m
±0.8cm, ±0.008m
Measured Speed (2)
Speed Max: 348m/s...
...Sadie Broadway
Speed of Sound In Air
We are studying the speed of sound in air currently in our physics class. The speed of sound is the distance traveled by a sound wave through an elastic medium during a period of time. The speed of sound is extremely interesting, as it’s actually the speed of transmission of a small disturbance through a medium. The speed of sound occurs constantly, whenever a sound is heard. It’s everywhere, and in air we are discovering certain factors like altitude and air density. The speeds in ideal gases and air have their own formulas:
Thus,
For a gas the K is given by the formula above, and the C is the coefficient of stiffness in solids. Thus the second formula is given. (Gamma) is the adiabatic index, then is the pressure, and the regular P is the density.
In general, the speed of sound is given in the formula:
K is a coefficient of stiffness, the bulk modulus, and P is the density. Then there is a more complex formula for equations of state, if classic mechanics are used, then speed of sound is given in the formula:
The variable is the pressure, and the regular P is the density. Those are just a few...
...PHY 113:
Speed of Sound Resonance Tube
Student’s name: Ilian Valev
Lab partners: Jayanthi Durai, Susan Berrier, Chase Wright
Date of experiment: April 15, 2010
Section SLN: 17742
TA’S name: Alex
Abstract:
This experiment tried to determine the speed of sound waves. To determine the speed, a resonance tube full of water was used and two different tuning forks of known frequency. Each fork was struck above the water level and the water level was slowly moved down until a resonance was heard. The distance where the resonance occurs were recorded and the speed of the waves were determined. The experimental speed of sound was then compared to the calculated theoretical speed of sound. The results obtained were very close to the theoretical speed of sound thus proving that they were precise.
I. Objective.
To measure the speed of sound waves in air.
II. Procedure.
This lab utilizes the following materials: resonance tube, tuning forks, rubber mallet, wooden mallet, measuring tape and thermometer.
Fill the tube with water to about 10cm to the open end of the tube. To adjust the level of the water in the tube, move the side bucket up and down in the vertical direction. Use two...
...Title: Measuring the speed of sound.
Research question: How to determine the speed of sound by using the relationship between the
frequency of the signal generator, f and the length of air column in the tube, l .
Variables:
Manipulated  Frequency of the signal generator, f  Use different frequency of signal generator which are 1000Hz, 1400Hz, 1800Hz, 2000Hz, 2500Hz, 3000Hz and 3600Hz. 
Responding  Length of air column in the tube, l (±0.5cm)  Measure the length of the air column in the tube using a metrerule. 
Constant  The volume of water, VAtmospheric pressure, atm (±0.1 Hgcm)Temperature, T (±0.5oc)Diameter of the resonance tube, D (±0.01cm)  Use the same water when conducting the experiment.The experiment is conducted at the same place so that the atmospheric pressure is fixed which is 75.6 Hgcm.The experiment is conducted at the same place so that the temperature is fixed which is 30.05ocThe diameter of the resonance tube is fixed to 2.18cm 
Table 1: Manipulated, responding and constant variable.
Apparatus and Materials:
Apparatus and materials  Quantity 
Signal generator  1 
Loudspeaker  1 
Resonance tube  1 
Retort stand with clamp  1 
Delivery tube  1 
Barometer  1 
Vernier caliper (±0.01cm)  1 
Metrerule (±0.5cm)  1 
Highlighter  1 
Water   
Table 2 : The Apparatus and...
...Oklahoma City Community College Phsyics 1 
Speed of Sound 
Mastery Experiment 

Lindsay Pickelsimer 
12/3/2010 

The speed of sound is a traveled distance through a certain amount of time that uses sound waves that spreads through and elastic medium. It usually depends on the temperature to which how fast it travels; speed of sound is increased when temperature increases. Frequency and wave length deals with determining the speed of sound. Speed of sound is inversely proportional to that of the wave length. In other words, if the velocity increases to a higher speed, then the wave length decreases in size.
A series of different instruments were used in determining the speed of sound in this experiment. This included a frequency meter, a signal generator, a speaker, a microphone, and an oscilloscope. Each had its own purpose in measuring the speed of sound. Specified values were used in this experiment.
Instrument  Manufacturer  Model No.  Range  Least Count 
Oscilloscope  B and K Precision  1472c  015MHz  1Hz 
Frequency meter  Daedalon Co.  N/A  20Hz2MHz  .001 Hz 
Signal generator  EMCO  SS1  20Hz2MHz ...
...and the maximum displacement. In this wave, it would be from the equilibrium to the top of the crest or bottom of the trough.
B)
C)
Speed: m/s
Frequency: Hz
D)
Speed: because speed is constant and not affected by the change in frequency.
Wavelength:0.4 Hz.
2. In transvers waves the motion of the particles is perpendicular to the direction of the energy. In longitudinal waves it they are parallel to each other.
Wavelength is the distance a wave has travelled after one cycle and does not change. Amplitude is the distance between the equilibrium and the maximum displacement of the wave, and it decreases as a wave travels through a medium.
Period is the time it takes to complete one cycle. Frequency is the number of cycles completed in one second.
3. Before:
After:
Fixed end
4.
Period:
Frequency:
Time to complete 5.0 cycles:
Lesson 2
5.
Speed:
Temp:
6. If the air temperature increases the speed of the sound will increase, because for every increase of 1 the speed of sound increase by 0.59m/s
7. If the temperature of the air increases the wavelength will also increase because the speed of the sound increases. In order to stay at 420Hz, the wavelength must increase....
...EXPERIMENT : Speed of sound
2. OBJECTIVE: : (1) To determine the wavelength of a sound in resonance air column.
(2) To determine the speed of sound in air at room temperature.
3. APPARATUS : Resonance tube (air column) attached with water container and meter stick, thermometer, function generator, speaker.
4. THEORY: : Sound is a longitudinal wave in a medium.
If n is the frequency and is the wavelength of the standing wave, than the speed of the sound at the temperature t c is given by:
vt = (1)
Wavelength (ג)
The speed of sound in air at 0 °C is 331.5 m/s, and as the temperature rises it increases at the rate of about 60 cm/s per degree centigrade. Hence the speed of sound vt at temperature t is obtained from the speed v0 at 0 °C by the relation
vt = v0 + 0.6 t (m/s) (2)
vt = [ 331.5 + 0.6 t ] (m/s)
5. INSTRUCTIONS
1. Record the frequency of speaker (source of vibrating object) from the function generator....
...Measuring the Speed of Sound and Air using a PulseEcho Technique
Purpose
To determine the speed of sound in air using the pulseecho experiment procedure, and comparing it to the predicted speed of sound in air using the measured air temperature of the classroom.
Hypothesis
I believe that the speed of sound it theair will be close to that of the predicted value. According to our predicted value, we should expect the speed of sound in the air to be at a speed of approximately 346 m/s.
Materials
1. Thermometer
2. Closed Cardboard Tube
3. Microphone
4. Data Studio Software
5. Metre Stick
6. Fingers to “snap”
Procedure
1. We had gathered all the required materials, opened up the Data Software program on the computer, and connected the microphone to the computer
2. We had set up the experiment by placing the microphone near the edge of the closed cardboard tube (on the open side)
3. We had one person ready to start the program by clicking the START button and one person ready to snap their fingers next to the microphone.
4. We had the person pressing the START button count down from 3. On the count of 3, the person pressed the START button, and right after, the finger snapper person snapped their finger.
5. Once a successful snap...
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