Measurement and Scaling
Measurement means assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of consumers according to certain pre-specified rules. Measure consumer perceptions, attitudes, preferences, and other relevant characteristics. The rules for assigning numbers should be standardized and applied uniformly. Measurement is assigning range/ points across which respondents can not vary in their response

Measurement and Scaling cont...
Scaling is an extension of measurement.
Scaling involves plotting consumers according to their responses e.g. Consider an attitude scale from 1 to 5. Each respondent is assigned a number from 1 to 5 Where: 1 = Extremely Unfavorable

5 = Extremely Favorable
Measurement is the actual assigning range from 1 to 5 to each respondent and Scaling is the placing of respondents on these numbers with respect to their attitude. Primary Scales of MeasurementNominal Scale

The numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects. When used for identification, there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the objects. The numbers do not reflect the amount of the characteristic possessed by the objects. The only permissible operation on the numbers in a nominal scale is counting. Only a limited number of statistics, all of which are based on frequency counts, are permissible, e.g. percentages and mode. Primary Scales of MeasurementOrdinal Scale

A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which the objects possess some characteristic and also categories of objects. Can determine whether an object has more or less of a characteristic than some other object, but not how much more or less. In addition to the counting operation allowable for nominal scale data, ordinal scales permit the use of statistics based on centiles, e.g., percentile, quartile, median.

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