# Mean, Median, Mode

Mean, median, and mode are three kinds of "averages". There are many "averages" in statistics, but these are, I think, the three most common, and are certainly the three you are most likely to encounter in your pre-statistics courses, if the topic comes up at all.

The "mean" is the "average" you're used to, where you add up all the numbers and then divide by the number of numbers. The "median" is the "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median, your numbers have to be listed in numerical order, so you may have to rewrite your list first. The "mode" is the value that occurs most often. If no number is repeated, then there is no mode for the list.

The "range" is just the difference between the largest and smallest values.

Find the mean, median, mode, and range for the following list of values: 13, 18, 13, 14, 13, 16, 14, 21, 13

The mean is the usual average, so:

(13 + 18 + 13 + 14 + 13 + 16 + 14 + 21 + 13) ÷ 9 = 15

Note that the mean isn't a value from the original list. This is a common result. You should not assume that your mean will be one of your original numbers.

The median is the middle value, so I'll have to rewrite the list in order:

13, 13, 13, 13, 14, 14, 16, 18, 21

There are nine numbers in the list, so the middle one will be the (9 + 1) ÷ 2 = 10 ÷ 2 = 5th number:

13, 13, 13, 13, 14, 14, 16, 18, 21

So the median is 14. Copyright © Elizabeth Stapel 2004-2011 All Rights Reserved The mode is the number that is repeated more often than any other, so 13 is the mode.

The largest value in the list is 21, and the smallest is 13, so the range is 21 – 13 = 8.

mean: 15

median: 14

mode: 13

range: 8

Note: The formula for the place to find the median is "( [the number of data points] + 1) ÷ 2", but you don't have to use this formula. You can just count in from both ends of the list until you meet in the middle, if you prefer. Either way will work.

Find the mean, median, mode, and range for the following list of values: 1, 2, 4, 7

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The mean is the usual average:

(1 + 2 + 4 + 7) ÷ 4 = 14 ÷ 4 = 3.5

The median is the middle number. In this example, the numbers are already listed in numerical order, so I don't have to rewrite the list. But there is no "middle" number, because there are an even number of numbers. In this case, the median is the mean (the usual average) of the middle two values:

(2 + 4) ÷ 2 = 6 ÷ 2 = 3

The mode is the number that is repeated most often, but all the numbers in this list appear only once, so there is no mode.

The largest value in the list is 7, the smallest is 1, and their difference is 6, so the range is 6.

mean: 3.5

median: 3

mode: none

range: 6

The list values were whole numbers, but the mean was a decimal value. Getting a decimal value for the mean (or for the median, if you have an even number of data points) is perfectly okay; don't round your answers to try to match the format of the other numbers.

Find the mean, median, mode, and range for the following list of values: 8, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, 11, 11, 12, 13

The mean is the usual average:

(8 + 9 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 11 + 11 + 11 + 12 + 13) ÷ 10 = 105 ÷ 10 = 10.5

The median is the middle value. In a list of ten values, that will be the (10 + 1) ÷ 2 = 5.5th value; that is, I'll need to average the fifth and sixth numbers to find the median:

(10 + 11) ÷ 2 = 21 ÷ 2 = 10.5

The mode is the number repeated most often. This list has two values that are repeated three times.

The largest value is 13 and the smallest is 8, so the range is 13 – 8 = 5.

mean: 10.5

median: 10.5

modes: 10 and 11

range: 5

While unusual, it can happen that two of the averages (the mean and the median, in this case) will have the same value.

Note: Depending on your text or your instructor, the above data set may be viewed as having no mode (rather than two modes), since no single solitary number was...

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