Ch. 7 & 8 Study Guide
*. During early childhood, on average, girls are smaller and lighter than boys.
*. By the end of early childhood, compared to each other, boys have muscle tissue, whereas girls have fatty tissue.
*. By repeatedly obtaining brain scans of the same children for up to four years, researchers found that the children’s brains experience undergo dramatic anatomical change between the ages of 3 and 15.
*. Researchers have found that in children from 3 to 6 years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the frontal lobe areas.
*. Experts recommend that young children get 11 to13 hours of a sleep each night.
*. Children can experience a number of sleep problems, including narcolepsy which is characterized by: a difficult temperament at 5 months of age and anxiousness at 17 months of age.
*. Researchers have found children who have sleep problems:
*. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk for being overweight are determined by: Body mass index which is computed by a formula that takes into account height and weight.
*. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only children and adolescents at or above the 97% percentile are classified as obese
*. Young children from low income families are the most likely to develop iron deficiency anemia.
*. The leading cause of death in young children in the United States is:
*. The negative effects of high lead levels in children’s blood include:
*. The poor are the majority in nearly _____ of the nations of the world.
*. Deaths in young children due to HIV/AIDS especially occur in countries:
*. The second substage of preoperational thought, occurring between approximately 4 and 7 years of age, is characterized by the emergence of:
*. When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance to the level of skill of the student, it is called:
*. This use of language for self-regulation is called:
*. Vygotsky’s view of the importance of _____ on children’s development fits with the current belief that it is important to evaluate the contextual factors in learning.
*. Vygotsky believed that children construct knowledge through:
*. _____ attention is focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.
*. After the age of _____, children attend more efficiently to the dimensions of the task that are relevant.
*. When experimenters ask children to judge whether two complex pictures are the same, preschool children tend to use a haphazard comparison strategy, not examining all of the details before making a judgment, exhibiting a lack of:
*. In short-term memory, individuals retain information for up to _____ if there is no rehearsal of the information.
*. By _____ of age, a child recognizes that another person will see what’s in front of her own eyes instead of what’s in front of the child’s eyes.
*. The realization that people can have false beliefs—beliefs that are not true—develops in a majority of children by the time they are _____ old.
*. Approximately _____ children is estimated to have some sort of autism spectrum disorder
*. It now is accepted that autism is linked to:
*. By the time they enter first grade, it is estimated that children know about _____ words.
*. Around _____ years of age, children learn to change their speech style to suit the situation.
*. In 1965, the federal government began an effort to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for young children in the United States through:
*. Early Head Start was established in 1995 to serve children from _____ of age.
*. According to Erik Erikson, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is:
*. According to Erik Erikson, the “great governor” of initiative is:
*. Self-conscious emotions do not appear to develop until...