The knee is a very complicated joint, and knee injuries can be very detailed. After receiving first aid most knee injuries are referred to a physician. Most serious knee injuries in sports can be prevented but the key is to get the athletes to work on strengthening the quadriceps and the hamstring muscle groups. But for those injuries that do occur, knees that are protected by strong muscle groups are usually less severe than those that aren’t. Plus Rehab time is reduced if these are strong muscle groups!
The knee is the largest joint in the human body. Despite its size it is structurally weak! Bones
The bones of the knee are relatively unstable and thus are the joints primary weakness. There are four bones of the knee joint! This is a list of the bones that from the knee joint: the Femur (Thigh Bone) is the largest, longest and strongest bone in the body. The Tibia, the main weight bearing bone of the lower leg, sits underneath the femur. The Fibula is the next largest bone and it is a non-weight bearing bone. It serves as an attachment for the Lateral Collateral Ligament and articulates the knee only with the Tibula. The fourth bone of the knee is the Patella (Knee Cap). It is encased in the patella tendon and moves up and down in front of the knee in the space between the two condyles of the femur.
(Insert picture of bones of the knee and title them)
Ligaments and Cartilage
The knee has an instability issue due to its boney structure. It’s compensated for by the ligament and muscle support. The knee has four important ligaments that help stabilize it. They are on the medial side (inside) of the knee: The Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) it helps secure the femur to the tibia and also connects to the cartilage of the knee, the medial meniscus. The MCL has the appearance of a broad and flat band. On the Lateral side (outside) of the knee, the Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) attaches the femur to the fibula but doesn’t connect to the lateral meniscus. The LCL has a cord like appearance rather than a band. The other two ligaments known as the cruciate ligaments (so named from the latin word meaning cross) from and “X” in the center of the joint. They connect the femur to the tibia. They restrict the anterior and posteria movement of the femur on the tibia. There are two cartilages found in the knee. They are the Lateral and Medial Meniscus. They are tough and fibrious and rest on top of the Tibia and are the shock absorbers of the knee. Insert Anatomy of the Knee: Anterior View
There are 13 muscles the knee depends on for support and stability. The majority of these muscles are from the thigh (front and back) and the gastrocenemius muscle of the lower leg. The quadricep muscle group (front of the thigh) and the hamsting muscle group(the back of the thigh) are the major muscles in this area. The adductors and the abductors and the gastrocnemius make up the remainder of these muscles. Other Structures
Two other structures in the knee that are of great importance are the Synovial Membrane and the Bursae Sacs. The Synovial Memebrane is a large closed sac that lines the inside of the knee joint and its main purpose is to lubricate the tendons, ligaments, and bones. The Bursae Sacs (about 13 of them in the knee joint) serve as cushions where fiction between a bone and a tendon may have contact.and or where a prominent bone has friction over another.
Mechanism’s of injury
There are 3 major types of mechanisms for injuries to the...