Mcat Biology

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Biology:
* Chapter 1: The Cell
* Cell Adhesion Molecules (C.A.M.’s) - proteins that allow cells to recognize each other and contribute to proper cell differentiation and development. * DNA→ Genes → Histones → Chromosomes (or Chromatids) * Nucleolus- synthesizes rRNA

* Smooth E.R. - lipid synthesis and detox of drugs and poison * Rough E.R. – Production of proteins products
* Golgi Apparatus - series of membrane bound sacs; receives materials from smooth E.R. and sends to cell surface. * Cristae – in-foldings in the inner mitochondrial membrane that increase surface area for the ETC enzymes to sit within * Mitochondrial Matrix – contains many important enzymes in cellular respiration * Peroxisomes – create hydrogen peroxide within a cell and breakdown fats into usable molecules as well as catalyze detox reactions in the liver. * Glyoxysomes – important for germinating plants, where they convert fats to usable sugars until the plant can make its own energy through photosynthesis. * Centrioles – important for spindle formation.

* Chapter 2: Enzymes
* Cofactors – nonprotein molecules required by many enzymes. * Apoenzymes – enzymes without their cofactors
* Haloenzymes – enzymes with their cofactors
* Prosthetic groups – tightly bound cofactors
* Coenzymes – organic cofactors
* Zymogens- inactive enzymes; they contain a catalytic (active) domain and a regulatory domain, which must be either removed or altered to expose the active site. * Apoptotic enzymes – Caspases; exhibit similar regulation as zymogens.

* Chapter 3: Cellular Metabolism
* Pyranose – ring structure that glucose and many other 6-carbon sugars are capable of forming; it is in either an alpha or beta configuration. * Breakdown of ATP to ADP or of ADP to AMP releases approximately 7 kcal/mol of energy. * Glycolysis: takes place in the cytoplasm; it uses 1 glucose and makes 2 pyruvate; starts with 2 NAD+ and...
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