MBA-CET Model Paper
dozen or so houses and families, was economically vulnerable; but when several villages, probably under the direction of a council of elders, learned to share their human resources in the building of a coordinated network of water-control systems, the safety, stability, and prosperity of all improved. In this new cooperation, the seeds of the great Mesopotamian civilizations were being sown. Technological and mathematical inventions, too, were stimulated by life along rivers. Such devices as the noria ( a p r i m i t i ve wa t e r w h e e l ) a n d t h e Archimedean screw (a device for raising water from the low riverbanks to the high ground where it was needed), two forerunners of many more varied and complex machines were first developed here for use in irr igation systems. S i m i l a r l y, t h e e a r l i e s t m e t h o d s o f measurement and computation and the first developments in geometry were stimulated by the need to keep track of land holdings and boundaries in fields that were periodically inundated. The rivers served as high roads of the earliest commerce. Traders used boats made of bundles of rushes to transport grains, fruits, nuts, fibers, and textiles from one village to another, transforming the rivers into the central spines of nascent commercial kingdoms. Trade expanded surprisingly widely, we have evidence suggesting that even before the establishment of the first Egyptian
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Directions (Qs. 1 to 7) : Read the following passage to answer these questions : As the climate in the Middle East changed beginning around 7000 B.C., conditions emerged that were conductive to a more complex and advanced form of civilization in both Egypt and Mesopotamia. The process began when the swampy valleys of the Nile in Egypt and of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Mesopotamia became drier, producing riverine lands that were both habitable and fertile, and attracting settlers armed with the newly-developed techniques of agriculture. This migration was further encouraged by the gradual transformation of the once hospitable grasslands of these regions into deserts. Human population became increasingly concentrated into pockets of settlement scattered along the banks of the great rivers. These rivers profoundly shaped the way of life along their banks. In Mesopotamia, the management of water in conditions of unpredictable drought, flood and stor m became the central economic and social challenge. Villagers began early to build simple earthworks, dikes, canals and ditches to control the waters and reduce the opposing dangers of drought during the dry season (usually the spring) and flooding at harvest time. Such efforts required a degree of cooperation among large numbers of people that had not previously existed. The individual village containing only a
dynasty, goods were being exchanged between villagers in Egypt and others as far away as Iran. Similar developments were occurring at much the same time along the great river valleys in other parts of the worldfor example, along the Indus in India and the Hwang Ho in China. The history of early civilization has been shaped to a remarkable degree by the relation of humans and rivers. 1. This passage basically explains (a) The similarities and differences among s evera l ancient societies (b) The influence of r iver settlements on the growth of early civilizations (c) How climatic changes led to the founding of the earliest recorded cities. 5. 4.
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(b) Land owners (c) Traders and merchants (d) Mechanical artisans The passage indicates that the social effects of the unpredictability of water supplies in Mesopotamia was (a) To encourage cooperation in the creation of water management systems (b) To drive farmers to settle in fertile grasslands far from the uncontrollable rivers (c) To cause warfare over water rights among rival villages
(d) None of the above The passage...
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