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Q. 2

Factors Affecting Span of Control or Span of Management

Post : Gaurav Akrani Date : 8/03/2011 06:41:00 AM IST
No Comments Labels : Management

[pic]1. Qualification and Qualities

If the superiors and subordinates are well-qualified, trained, experienced, and if they are experts in their jobs then the span of control will be wide and vice-versa.

[pic]2. Level of Management

If the superiors are working at the top-level of management, then they have more responsibilities. Therefore, their span of control will be narrow and vice-versa.

[pic]3. Nature of Work

If the work is difficult then the span of control is narrow and vice-versa.

[pic]4. Superior - Subordinates Relationship

If there are good relations between the superior and subordinates, then the span of control will be wide and vice-versa.

[pic]5. Degree of Centralisation

Under decentralisation, the superior has to take fewer decisions. Therefore, he can have a wide span of control. However, under centralisation, the superior has to take many decisions. Therefore, he should have a narrow span of control.

[pic]6. Use of Communication Technology

If face-to-face communication is used, then the span of control will be narrow. However, if electronic devices are used for communication then the span of control will be wide.

[pic]7. Financial position of the Prganisation

If the organisation has a good financial position, then it can have a narrow span of control. This is because a narrow span requires more managers. More managers will increase the compensation or wage bill of the organisation. However, if the organisation has a bad financial position, then it will be forced to have a wide span of control.

[pic]8. Clearity of Plans and Responsibilities

If the plans are clear and if the responsibilities are well-defined, then the span of control will be wide. This is because the subordinates will not have to go and consult their superior repeatedly for getting orders and guidance.

[pic]9. Time available for Subordinates

If the superior is busy with another work, and if he has less time for his subordinates then his span of control will be narrow and vice-versa.

[pic]10. Faith and Trust in Subordinates

If the superior has good faith, trust and confidence in his subordinates then the span of control can be wider.

Q. 3

Types of Plans

Three major types of plans can help managers achieve their organization's goals: strategic, tactical, and operational. Operational plans lead to the achievement of tactical plans, which in turn lead to the attainment of strategic plans. In addition to these three types of plans, managers should also develop a contingency plan in case their original plans fail.

Operational plans

The specific results expected from departments, work groups, and individuals are the operational goals. These goals are precise and measurable. “Process 150 sales applications each week” or “Publish 20 books this quarter” are examples of operational goals. An operational plan is one that a manager uses to accomplish his or her job responsibilities. Supervisors, team leaders, and facilitators develop operational plans to support tactical plans (see the next section). Operational plans can be a single-use plan or an ongoing plan. • Single-use plans apply to activities that do not recur or repeat. A one-time occurrence, such as a special sales program, is a single-use plan because it deals with the who, what, where, how, and how much of an activity. A budget is also a single-use plan because it predicts sources and amounts of income and how much they are used for a specific project. • Continuing or ongoing plans are usually made once and retain their value over a period of years while undergoing periodic revisions and updates. The following are examples of ongoing plans: • A policy provides a broad guideline for...
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