Subject Name:Management Process and Organization Behavior Assignment:Set – 1
Q. 1Write a note on the characteristics of Management.
Ans. Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics:
1. Goal-Oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. It co-ordinates the efforts of employees to achieves the goal of the organization. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. It is imperative that the organizational goal must be well-define and properly understood by the managers at various levels.
2. Economic Resources: Management is one of the factors of production together with land, labor and capital. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources, namely, labor, capital and materials. These factors do not by themselves ensure production; they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Thus management is an essential ingredient of an organization.
3. Distinct Process: Management is distinct process consisting of such functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequences of various functions or their relative significance. In essence, the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decision into practice.
4. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Managers apply knowledge, experience and management principles for getting the result from the workers by the use of non-human resources. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization.
5. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness, informed employees, buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Thus, feeling of management is result-oriented. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management in the basis of the end results, although they can’t observe it during operation.
6. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them.
7. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well-defined concepts, principles and techniques which have wide applications. So it is treated as science. The application of these concepts, principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Since the skills acquired by a manger are his personal possession, management is viewed as an art.
8. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority, a hierarchy of command and control. Managers at different level possess varying degrees of authority. Generally, as we move down in managerial hierarchy, the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively.
9. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i.e. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering, Anthropology, Sociology and Psychology. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. For instance, productivity orientation drew its inspiration from industrial Engineering and human...