The 13 May 1969 Incident is a term for the Sino-Malay sectarian violence in Kuala Lumpur (then part of the state of Selangor), Malaysia, which reportedly began on 13 May 1969. The racial riots led to a declaration of a state of 'national emergency' or Darurat and henceforth by Kuala Navis, resulted in the suspension of Parliament by the Malaysian government, while the National Operations Council (NOC or Majlis Gerakan Negara, MAGERAN) was established to temporarily govern the country between 1969 and 1971. Officially, 196 people were killed between 13 May and 31 July 1969, as a result of the riots, although journalists and other observers have stated much higher figures. Other reports at the time suggest over 2,000 were killed by rioters, police and Malaysian Army rangers, mainly in Kuala Lumpur. Many of the dead were quickly buried in unmarked graves in the Kuala Lumpur General Hospital grounds by soldiers of Malaysian Engineers. The government cited the riots as the main cause of its more aggressive affirmative action policies, such as the New Economic Policy (NEP), after 1969. In the decades since the riots, the Barisan Nasional coalition government which has ruled unabated since independence has pinned the blame for the incident solely on the opposition Democratic Action Party, which is Chinese-based. However, many allege that the riots were simply a ploy by the Malay elites of UMNO, as part of their efforts to wrest power from the moderate Tunku Abdul Rahman – in which they succeeded – as well as to further their agenda of Malay supremacy which has dominated Malaysian government policy ever since. Contents * 1 Precursors * 1.1 Formation of Malaysia * 1.1.1 History of Malaya * 1.2 Ketuanan Melayu * 1.2.1 Run-up to polling day * 1.2.2 Election results * 2 Rioting * 2.1 Declaration of emergency * 2.2 Conspiracy theories * 3 Repercussions * 3.1 Immediate effects * 3.2 Legacy * 4 Aftermath * 5 Political references * 6 See also * 7 References * 7.1 Notes * 8 External links| Precursors
Formation of Malaysia
History of Malaya
On its formation in 1963, Malaysia, a federation incorporating Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia), Singapore, North Borneo (Sabah) and Sarawak, suffered from a sharp division of wealth between the Chinese, who were perceived to control a large portion of the Malaysian economy, and the Malays, who were perceived to be poorer and more rural. The 1964 Race Riots in Singapore contributed to the expulsion of that state from Malaysia on 9 August 1965, and racial tension continued to simmer, with many Malays dissatisfied by their newly independent government's perceived willingness to placate the Chinese at their expense. Ketuanan Melayu
Politics in Malaysia at this time were mainly Malay-based, with an emphasis on special privileges for the Malays – other indigenous Malaysians, grouped together collectively with the Malays under the title of "bumiputra" would not be granted a similar standing until after the riots. There had been a recent outburst of Malay passion for ketuanan Melayu – a Malay term for Malay supremacy or Malay dominance – after the National Language Act of 1967, which in the opinion of some Malays, had not gone far enough in the act of enshrining Malay as the national language. Heated arguments about the nature of Malay privileges, with the mostly Chinese opposition mounting a "Malaysian Malaysia" campaign had contributed to the separation of Singapore on 9 August 1965, and inflamed passions on both sides. * the concept of Ketuanan Melayu began to be used only in the 1980s* Run-up to polling day
The causes of the rioting can be analysed to have the same root as the 1964 riots in Singapore, the event rooted from sentiments before the campaigning was bitterly fought among various political parties prior to polling day on 10 May 1969, and party leaders stoked racial and...