Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms for Photovoltaic Applications

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David Sanz Morales

Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms for Photovoltaic Applications

Faculty of Electronics, Communications and Automation

Thesis submitted for examination for the degree of Master of Science in Technology. Espoo 14.12.2010

Thesis supervisor: Prof. Seppo Ovaska Thesis instructor: D.Sc. (Tech.) Konstantin Kostov

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Aalto University School of Science and Technology

aalto university school of science and technology Author: David Sanz Morales

abstract of the master’s thesis

Title: Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms for Photovoltaic Applications Date: 14.12.2010 Language: English Number of pages:9+73

Faculty of Electronics, Communications and Automation Department of Electrical Engineering Professorship: Power Electronics Supervisor: Prof. Seppo Ovaska Instructor: D.Sc. (Tech.) Konstantin Kostov Solar panels have a nonlinear voltage-current characteristic, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP), which depends on the environmental factors, such as temperature and irradiation. In order to continuously harvest maximum power from the solar panels, they have to operate at their MPP despite the inevitable changes in the environment. This is why the controllers of all solar power electronic converters employ some method for maximum power point tracking (MPPT). Over the past decades many MPPT techniques have been published. The first objective of this thesis is to study and analyze them. The three algorithms that where found most suitable for large and medium size photovoltaic (PV) applications are perturb and observe (P&O), incremental conductance (InCond) and fuzzy logic control (FLC). These were compared and tested dynamically according a recently issued standard. Several modifications to the P&O and the InCond algorithms are proposed, which overcome their poor performance when the irradiation changes continuously. The dynamic MPPT efficiency tests require long simulations and if detailed models of the power converter are used they can take a lot of memory and computation time. To overcome this challenge a simplified model of the PV system was developed. This model was validated with simulations. Code: S-81

Keywords: PV power generation, MPPT algorithms, perturb and observe, incremental conductance, fuzzy logic

aalto-yliopisto teknillinen korkeakoulu Tekij¨: David Sanz Morales a

¨ diplomityon ¨ tiivistelma

Ty¨n nimi: Maksimitehopisteen seuraajat aurinkoenergian tuotannossa o P¨iv¨m¨¨r¨: 14.12.2010 a a aa a Kieli: Englanti Sivum¨¨r¨:9+73 aa a

Elektroniikan, tietoliikenteen ja automaation tiedekunta S¨hk¨tekniikan laitos a o Professuuri: Tehoelektroniikka Valvoja: Prof. Seppo Ovaska Ohjaaja: TkT Konstantin Kostov Aurinkopaneelien tuottana teho muuttuu ep¨lineaarisesti virran funktiona siten, a ett¨ on olemassa selke¨ toimintapiste, jossa teho on suurimmillaan. T¨t¨ pistett¨ a a aa a kutsutaan maksimitehopisteeksi ja se riippuu ulkoisista olosuhteista, kuten l¨mp¨tila a o ja s¨teilyn voimakkuus. Jotta aurinkopaneeleista saataisiin jatkuvasti suurin maha dollinen teho, t¨ytyy paneeli pit¨¨ maksimitehopisteess¨ riippumatta olosuhteiden a aa a vaihtelusta. T¨st¨ syyst¨ aurinkopaneeleihin liitettyjen tehoelektronisten muuttajien a a a ohjauksessa k¨ytet¨¨n aina jonkinlaista maksimitehopisteen seurantaa (MPPT, a aa maximum power point tracking). Viime vuosikymmenten aikana on julkaistu useita MPPT-menetelmi¨. T¨ss¨ a a a diplomity¨ss¨ tarkastellaan ja analysoidaan n¨it¨ menetelmi¨. Kolmeksi parhaiten o a a a a suuriin ja keskisuuriin aurinkovoimasovelluksiin soveltuviksi algoritmeiksi havaittiin poikkeuta ja havaitse -menetelm¨, inkrementaalinen konduktanssi -menetelm¨ sek¨ a a a sumea s¨¨t¨. N¨it¨ kolmea menetelm¨¨ vertailtiin ja niiden dynaamista suoriaa o a a aa tuskyky¨ tarkasteltiin hiljattain julkaistun standardin pohjalta. Ty¨ss¨ esitet¨¨n a o a aa kahteen ensin mainittuun menetelm¨¨n useita parannuksia, joilla niiden heikkoa aa suorituskyky¨ jatkuvissa...
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