Max Weber (1864 – 1920) was a left-wing liberal German political economist and sociologist. He despised the nobility and the seeking of power for its own ends. He studied capitalism in general and the part of religion in particular.
Rise of Capitalism
Some religions enable the march of capitalism, whilst others, such as Hinduism and Confucianism, do not. A key trigger in the Reformation was the removal of simple guarantees of being saved through belief, which led people to seek other routes to salvation.
• Protestant work ethic
Weber coined the term 'Protestant work ethic' to describe a dedication to simplicity and hard work that the Protestant branches of the Christian church espoused. The paradox of the Protestant work ethic was that whilst hard work led to commercial success, it was a sin (particularly in Calvinism) to spend the money on oneself or religious icons (Protestant churches are very simple, unlike Catholic ones). The way out was investment, which simply led to even more commercial success. Mass-production also supported Protestant ideas of equality and countered individualism. Commercial success and personal simplicity was seen as a particular demonstration of piety. If you can be rich yet resist the easy temptation it brings, then surely you will get into heaven.
• The evolution of capitalism
In this way, modern capitalism actually grew from religious seeking of wealth as a symbol of work. Over time in Western society the temptations of spending money on oneself increased and perhaps led to the decline in the religious element. Capitalism was thus established as a 'religion' of its own.
• Capitalism unfettered
Weber described the spirit of capitalism as the ideas and habits that support the rational pursuit of economic gain. Without the restraints of religion, greed and laziness lead to making the maximum amount of money for the minimum effort.
Where Capitalism is Not
Weber noted that Capitalism was not a necessary or inevitable thing.
In his study of Chinese religions of Confucianism and Taoism, Weber noted that several factors did not lead to Capitalism, including: ✓ Confucianism supported many cults and variations. There was no unified priestly class. ✓ The Emperor was the high priest and worshipped to the gods. The people stuck to their ancestors. ✓ There was no unifying force to challenge the Emperor. Guilds were many and kinship loyalty fragmented society. ✓ Confucianism taught that pursuit of wealth was wrong (but having was not). People thus sought status in officialdom, which was unified with the emperor. ✓ Sale of land was often prohibited.
Confucianism was the state cult. Taoism was the popular 'religion', which was more a pacifist philosophy and had no gods.
Weber studied of the orthodoxy of Hinduism and the heterodoxy of Buddhism within the sociology of India. Indian society is based around the status division of castes, made up of priests, warriors, merchants and workers, which inhibited the development of urban status groups, as castes were evenly spread and fixed social grouping. The religions support this status quo with a view of an immutable world order. Notions of Karma and fatalism thus lead to people accepting their lot. The world was interpreted in mystical ways and intellectuals tended to be apolitical. There was also no 'Messianic prophesy' that gave hope of better things to the common people.
Society and State
Weber noted the pre-eminence of the state in Western culture. He recognized the need for 'ideal types' of society, but with an understanding that ideals are gross simplifications, missing out much of the messy reality. He identified a 'three-component theory of stratification' of society: ▪ Social class: based on economic relationship to the market, e.g. employee, owner, lessee. ▪ Status: based on non-economical...