Weber’s Bureaucratic Theory – the essence of the modern traditionally managed organization.
Bureaucracies are arrangements of formal positions. Each position is defined by its specialized duties for which employees are selected on the basis of their technical expertise.
Positions are divided (division of labor) into line (positions directly involved in production of goods or services) and staff (positions which advise line and engage in organizational maintenance functions)
The positions are organized in a vertical, pyramid-shaped hierarchy.
Decision-makers at all levels are to make decisions rationally based solely on the policies and procedures of the organization and the available facts. Personal relationships play no role.
All actions, decisions, and rules are constructed and recorded formally.
The power to accomplish goals in a bureaucracy comes from one or more of the three kinds of authority:
traditional authority, or
2. Taylor’s Scientific Management ( 1910 – 1930)
The Mental Revolution – a “humane” revolution
i. Managers and workers share responsibility for efficiency
ii. Cooperative labor-management attitudes are vital
iii. There is a need for both UPWARD and downward communication
iv. Managers need to consult with workers on job design
v. Decisions must be made rationally – not arbitrarily
The Methods of Scientific Management