The classical empires experienced periods of great power by centralization of power and establishing belief systems to maintain power over their empire. This is true for both Han China and Mauryan India. Both of these classical empires were very successful in the ancient world because they were able to expand and create strong political policies to keep their empires strong and stable. While both Han China and Mauryan/Gupta India built distinct political structure to ensure that their officials were implementing their policies, Han China and Mauryan India used belief systems as techniques to ensure that there was order in their empires.
The political structure of both Han China and Mauryan/Gupta India were distinct because Han China focused their government more on the bureaucracy, whereas in Mauryan/Gupta India the ruler focused more on the Military and spies to implement his policies. In Han China, Han Wudi, the "Martial Emperor", was facing serious problems of recruitment for his bureaucracy and so he decided to establish an imperial university that prepared young men to hold a place in the bureaucracy. In the imperial universities Confucianism was a major part of student learning because Confucianism was the only Chinese culture rigorous enough to discipline students. Han Wudi wanted to make sure that his empire stayed strong by having young bureaucrats with the same goals as he did. On the contrary, Mauryan/Gupta India Empire focused more on military and spies because he wanted to make sure that no one was going to rebel against him. Ashoka started to send out individuals to look after foreigners to observe their moves. He also built a huge army because he wanted to protect his whole empire from invasion and rebellion. As you can see, both focused on different parts of the government to enforce their rules on people. Even though both empires used different parts of their government to run their empire, they actually used belief systems on their empires as...
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