Maturity of Fruits and Vegetables and Its Effect on the Finished Product

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Sitti N. Mamogkat Date Performed: November 28, 2012 Group 3 Date Submitted: December 5, 2012

Exercise 3
Maturity of fruits and vegetables and its effect on the finished product

INTRODUCTION
For the quality of fruits and vegetables, it is important to take into account the maturity and ripeness of the fruits and vegetables at harvest as it determines the postharvest-life and their final quality, such as appearance, texture, flavor, nutritive value, etc. There is a distinction between maturity and ripeness of a fruit. Maturity is the condition when the fruit is ready to eat or if picked will become ready to eat after further ripening. Ripeness is that optimum condition when colour, flavour and texture have developed to their peak. Some fruit is picked when it is mature but not yet ripe (FAO, 1995). As for the quality of processed vegetable products, manufacturers must consider the varieties that a given vegetable possesses. Aside from genetic strain differences, varieties of a given vegetable differ in size, shape, time of maturity and resistance to physical damage. As a consequence, processing methods like canning, freezing, pickling or drying will be limited and carefully selected to suit these varietal differences and prevent from damaging the finished products. Saba bananas (also known as Cardava bananas) from different level of maturity and ripeness were chosen as the subject for this experimentation. Saba banana is a triploid (ABB) hybrid of the seeded banana Musa balbisiana and Musa acuminata (Porcher and Barlow, 2002). The fruits are 8 to 13 cm (3.1 to 5.1 in) long and 2.5 to 5.5 cm (0.98 to 2.2 in) in diameter. Depending on the ripeness, the fruits are distinctively squarish and angular. The flesh is white and starchy, making it ideal for cooking. They are usually harvested while still green after 150 to 180 days after planting, especially if they are to be transported over long distances (Temanel, 2007). The maturity and ripeness of Saba bananas were the variation of the food samples in this experiment. The following ere the variation of the Saba bananas: (a) unripe Saba bananas, (b) mature Saba bananas and (c) ripe Saba bananas. Objective of the exercise

This exercise generally aimed on learning about the principle of maturity and ripening of fruits and vegetables and its relationship with fruit and vegetable finished products. MATERIALS
Equipment/MaterialsFood sample/Ingredients
Kitchen KnivesStrainerSaba Bananas (Cardaba Bananas):
Chopping BoardsLadleUnripe Saba Bananas
Frying PanTissue PaperMature Saba Bananas
Gas StovePlatesRipe Saba Bananas
ForksSoya Oil

METHODOLOGY
Different types, in terms of maturity of the Saba bananas (also known as Cardaba bananas), were given to each of the three groups in the class. The different types of Saba bananas were cooked to be made into banana chips using the process flow below. Further details of the experiment were shown through the figures below. The skins of the bananas were peeled off using a kitchen knife.

On a chopping board, the bananas were cut into small bits using a kitchen knife.

The banana cuts were fried in high heat.

The banana chips were placed on plates with tissue papers on it to absorb the excess oil from the chips. It is important to note that the whole procedure was separately done for the different maturity types of banana samples.

Consumer Acceptability Test: 9-point Hedonic Scale
The banana chips samples from the different variations in maturity and ripeness level were evaluated according to their following characteristics: (a) color, (b) texture, (c) taste and (4) overall acceptability of the food product using 9-point hedonic scale.

Fig. 2. Banana meat after peeling.

Fig. 1 Saba banana skin being peeled off.

Fig. 3. Banana meat being cut Fig. 4. Banana cuts. into small...
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