Solution to NCERT Text Book Questions
1. Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France. Answer: Following are some of the causes which had a cumulative effect to result in revolution in France: (a) The war with Britain for an independent America: This war led to mounting debt on the French monarchy. This necessitated imposition of new taxes on the public. (b) Privilege based on birth: People got privileges and position based on their lineage and not on their merit. This led to resentment among common people. (c) Concentration of power among the privileged: People belonging to the first and second estate had all the power and money. Masses were at the mercy of this privileged class. (d) Subsistence Crisis: Rising population and less grain production resulted in demand supply gap of bread, which was the staple diet. Wages did not keep pace with rising prices. It was becoming difficult for people. (e) Growing Middle Class: Because of increased overseas trade a new class emerged. This class was wealthy not because of birth but because of its ability to utilize opportunities. People of the middle class started raising their voice for an end to privileges based on lineage. All of this led to a general sense of resentment among people. Certain thinkers of the period spread awareness through various media. Some from the privileged classes also advocated a switch to democracy. So, finally there was revolution in France. 2. Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution? Which groups were forced to relinquish power? Which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution? Answer: Peasants and artisans of French society benefited from the revolution. Clergy, nobles and church had to relinquish power. It is obvious that those who had to forego power and privileges would have been disappointed. People from the first and the second estate must have been a disappointed lot. 3. Describe the...
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