1. 1. Teaching and Learning – no easy task – complex process. 2. 2. Each pupil is an individual with a unique personality. 3. 3. Pupils acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes at different times, rates and ways. 4. 4. 8 general teaching methods for math:
Co-operative learning Exposition
Guided discovery Games
Laboratory approach Simulations
Problem solving Investigations
5. For effective teaching use a combination of these methods:
1. 1. More a method of organization than a specific teaching strategy. 2. 2. Pupils work in small groups (4-6) – encourage to discuss and solve problems 3. 3. Accountable for management of time and resources both as individuals and as a group. 4. 4. Teacher moves from group to group giving assistance and encouragement, ask thoughts provoking questions as the need arises.
1. 5. Group work is visually reported to the entire class and further discussion ensues. 2. 6. Method allows pupils to work together as a team fostering co-operation rather than competition. 3. 7. Provides for pupils – pupils discussion, social interaction and problem solving abilities.
Implications for Teaching
1. 1. Promotes co-operation among pupils
2. 2. Pupils learn to accept responsibility for their own learning (autonomy) 3. 3. Reinforces understanding –each pupil can explain to other group members. 4. 4. Implies change in teachers role from leader to facilitator and initiator
1. 1. Requires more careful org. and management skills from the teacher. 2. 2. Demands careful pre-planning and investment of time and resources in preparing materials.
1. 1. Good expository teaching involves a clear and proper sequenced explanation by the teacher of the idea or concept.
1. 2. Usually, there is some teacher-pupil questioning (dialogue) 2. 3. Careful planning is required – go from what pupils know – each stage of development should be understood before the next is begun. 3. 4. All teachers would find useful ideas from
GAGNE – Teaching begins at the lowest level which serves as a prerequisite for a higher level. BRUNER – Math is rep. in at least 3 ways – enactive, iconic, symbolic DIENES – (dynamic principle) play should be incorporated in the teaching of math concepts.
IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING
1. 1. Fast and efficient way of giving information
2. 2. Relatively easy to organize and often requires little teacher preparation. 3. 3. It is possible for teacher to motivate with enthusiastic and lively discussion 4. 4. The lesson can be regulated according to the pupils response.
1. 1. Poor expository teaching leads to passive learners
2. 2. Retention and transfer of learning may be curtailed 3. 3. Does not adequately cater to individual differences 4. 4. It can be, and generally is, teacher dominated rather than child-centered
1. 1. A procedure which employs skills and/or chance and has a winner 2. 2. Predominantly used to practice and reinforce basic skills, additionally can be used to introduce new concepts and develop logical thinking and P.S. strategies
IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING
1. 1. Usually highly motivating
2. 2. Pupils enjoy playing games
3. 3. More likely to generate greater understanding and retention 4. 4. Games are an active approach to learning
5. 5. Good attitudes to math are fostered through games
1. 1. Collection and construction of materials for game is time consuming 2. 2. Classes engaged in playing games are likely to be noisy 3. 3. A game approach is not suitable to all areas of the syllabus
1. 1. Usually involves the teacher presenting a series of structured situations to the pupils. The pupils then study...