Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century. In the classical period of Indian mathematics (400 AD to 1200 AD), important contributions were made by scholars like Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, and Bhaskara II. The decimal number system in use today was first recorded in Indian mathematics.Indian mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the concept of zero as a number, negative numbers, arithmetic, and algebra.In addition, trigonometry was further advanced in India, and, in particular, the modern definitions of sine and cosine were developed there. These mathematical concepts were transmitted to the Middle East, China, and Europe and led to further developments that now form the foundations of many areas of mathematics. Ancient and medieval Indian mathematical works, all composed in Sanskrit, usually consisted of a section of sutras in which a set of rules or problems were stated with great economy in verse in order to aid memorization by a student. This was followed by a second section consisting of a prose commentary (sometimes multiple commentaries by different scholars) that explained the problem in more detail and provided justification for the solution. In the prose section, the form (and therefore its memorization) was not considered so important as the ideas involved. All mathematical works were orally transmitted until approximately 500 BCE; thereafter, they were transmitted both orally and in manuscript form. The oldest extant mathematical document produced on the Indian subcontinent is the birch bark Bakhshali Manuscript, discovered in 1881 in the village of Bakhshali, near Peshawar (modern day Pakistan) and is likely from the 7th century CE. A later landmark in Indian mathematics was the development of the series expansions for trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, and arc tangent) by mathematicians of the Kerala school in the 15th century CE. Their remarkable work, completed two...

...Mathematics in Indian has a very long and hallowed record. Sulvasutras, the most ancient extant written sms messages (prior to 800 BCE) that deal with mathematics, clearly situation and make use of the so-called Pythagorean theorem apart from providing various exciting estimates to surds, in connection with the development of altars and fire-places of different forms and designs. By enough duration of Aryabhata (c.499 CE), the Native indian specialised mathematicians were completely acquainted with most of the mathematics that we currently show in our educational institutions, such as the techniques for getting rectangular form primary, dice primary, and so on. Among other things, Aryabhata also offered the differential program of sine operate in its finite-difference type and a means for restoring straight variety indeterminate program. The `bhavana' law of Brahmagupta (c.628) and the `cakravala' formula described by Jayadeva and Bhaskaracarya (12th dollar.) for restoring quadratic indeterminate program are some of the essential attractions in the development of geometry in Indian.
The Kerala Institution of Astronomy developed by Madhava (c.1340--1420) expands well into the 1800s. The specialised mathematicians and astronomers living on the financial institutions of the stream Nila in the southern area Malabar area of Kerala -- tripping upon the problem of finding the actual connection between the arc and the corresponding...

...INTRODUCTION:
"India was the motherland of our race and Sanskrit the mother of Europe's languages. India was the mother of our philosophy, of much of our mathematics, of the ideals embodied in Christianity... of self-government and democracy. In many ways, Mother India is the mother of us all."
- Will Durant, American Historian 1885-1981
Mathematics is an important field of study. Mathematics is essential as it helps in developing lots of realistic skills, in fact study of mathematics itself include the concepts related to the routine lives of human. It not only develops mathematical skills and concepts, it also helps in developing the attitudes, interest, and appreciation and provides opportunities to develop one’s own thinking. So, mathematics is undoubtedly a discipline which is imperative to know and study. Figure 1 clearly specifies all the skills that are developed by the mathematics. Mathematics starts from simple things and linear thinking that lead towards the more complex things and higher order thinking skills. Mathematics has taken centuries to develop in its present form and that’s why it will be really fruitful to know about its development.
Fig. 1, Importance of MathematicsC:\Users\naveen\Desktop\Untitled.png
Mathematics has played a very significant role in the progress...

...Mathematics in IndiaPast, Present and Future
What is mathematics?
“mathematics is a science of space, numbers and quantity”
Past:
Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century. In the classical period of Indian mathematics (400 AD to 1200 AD), important contributions were made by scholars like Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, and Bhaskara II. The decimal number system in use today was first recorded in Indian mathematics. Indian mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the concept of zero as a number, negative numbers, arithmaticm and algebra. In addition, trigonometry was further advanced in India, and, in particular, the modern definitions of sine and cosine were developed there. These mathematical concepts were transmitted to the Middle East, China, and Europe and led to further developments that now form the foundations of many areas of mathematics.
Present:
20th century
The 20th century saw mathematics become a mojor profession. Every year, thousands of new Ph.D.s in mathematics are awarded, and jobs are availablein teaching, research and industry. Mathematical collaborations of unprecedented size and scope took place in India. One of the more colorful figures...

...Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used to share storage devices.
* In 1995, the transmission speed capacity for Ethernet was increased from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. The ability of Ethernet to scale easily (such as quickly adapting to support new fiber optic cable speeds) is a contributing factor to its continued use today.[4]
Today, computer networks are the core of modern communication. All modern aspects of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) are computer-controlled. Telephony increasingly runs over the Internet Protocol, although not necessarily the public Internet. The scope of communication has increased significantly in the past decade. This boom in communications would not have been possible without the progressively advancing computer network. Computer networks, and the technologies that make communication between networked computers possible, continue to drive computer hardware, software, and peripherals industries. The expansion of related industries is mirrored by growth in the numbers and types of people using networks, from the researcher to the home user.
Properties
Computer networking may be considered a branch of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines.
A computer network has...

...MATHEMATICS IN INDIA-
PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE
Let’s begin with sloka 1.4 of “Sulba sutra”
“Deerkha chaturasrasya akshnayarajju:
Paarshwamaanee thiryangmaaneecha prithak bhoopathe
Kurutha: thadupayam karothee”
(The area of square of diagonal of a rectangle is the sum of the area of squares of its adjacent and opposite sides.)
Then let’s look at the famous Pythagoras theorem:
“The square on the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is equal to the sum of squares of its sides”
The Sulba sutra was written on 12th century B.C. but the Pythagoras theorem was introduced on 6th century B.C, 600 years after Sulba sutra. That is, most of the works, theorems and concepts of mathematics existed in India on its own form even before in other countries. Let’s look at the glorious history of mathematics in India, its present state, and to what it is pointed.
Zero, the concept that laid foundation for the decimal system, the concept which made the beginning of all other mathematical ideas was originated in India. The invention of zero and decimal system was the reason for development of mathematics in India.
The fingerprints of Indian intelligence have fallen on the stage of mathematical operations too. Direct and inverse methods for addition and subtraction, 6...

...The Past, Present, and Future of UNIX
By
CIS 155 UNIX Operating System
March 4, 2012
Abstract
In the beginning, two men Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie in 1969 created an operating system that still has potential and relevance in today’s ever changing computer world, that operating system is called UNIX. I will be going over the past and present of UNIX and will also tell on how I feel about thefuture of UNIX. In the past, UNIX, a dominant operating system which pioneered the future of operating systems and how they are used today. Older platforms were written in assembly language which makes moving files around to different computers extremely difficult, when UNIX was created it was originally written in that same language but later changed to a high level language we all know today as C, there is only a small portion of the UNIX operating system that remain in assembly language and that is located in the kernel of the operating system. “Universities and colleges have played an important role in the popularity of the UNIX operating system. In 1975, Bell labs offered the UNIX operating system to educational institutions at minimal cost.”(Afzal, 2008)
Table of Contents
Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………2
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………….3
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………..4
Past of UNIX...

...Logan Shetlar
Mrs. Deggner
Expository Writing 201
30 March 2012
Preserving the Past for the Present and Future
Many people have little to no knowledge about human’s prehistoric past, especially that of humans in the Americas. As you cruise down east bound Interstate 70 and make it through St. Louis, you start to drive by one of North America’s largest prehistoric city structures, Cahokia. According to the Cahokia Mounds Historical Site, this city covered six square miles, had 120 mounds, and was home to anywhere between 10,000 to 20,000 people from the years 700 to 1400 AD (Keller). Cahokia use to be a major regional trade center with huge mounds that had large palaces for city rulers, plazas, different neighborhoods, and even gaming fields, but much of this has been lost from natural wear of the land and also human destruction. I-70, although a hugely important interstate nearly connecting coast to coast, cuts right through some of the city, and new housing developments slowly threaten the area (Ritterbush). This human destruction happens all over and continuously erases some of human history from right beneath our feet. Archaeological sites should be preserved in order to protect unwritten human history, create economical benefits, and teach future generations about the human past and allow for future studies.
Much of the reason why many people do not realize...

...Abstract
This past, present and future paper will reflect on my personal and professional growth during the time frame that I was a student at the University of Phoenix. One of the themes that are explored in this paper is that education is a lifetime pursuit. Another theme is what I am taking away from the institution now that I have completed my course of study. Finally the paper sets future career and personal goals to continue my lifetime of learning.
PastPresent and FuturePast
I have always valued education, and have a great yearning for knowledge. Prior to attending the University of Phoenix I had attended Oral Roberts University, majoring in Management Information Systems, for three years. My studies at Oral Roberts were cut short by a combination of two factors; a lack of finances to continue and a general boredom in the traditional educational setting.
I am a self-educator. I can take a subject I really enjoy, study and research it to the point were I am very well versed in it, and then remember the facts and figures that make it relevant in our world today. I have always been fascinated with the military leaders of our country with a particular fascination surrounding the military genius that led to our victories in World War II. I have been reading biographies, and autobiographies, of leaders and politicians since I was in high...

{"hostname":"studymode.com","essaysImgCdnUrl":"\/\/images-study.netdna-ssl.com\/pi\/","useDefaultThumbs":true,"defaultThumbImgs":["\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_1.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_2.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_3.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_4.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_5.png"],"thumb_default_size":"160x220","thumb_ac_size":"80x110","isPayOrJoin":false,"essayUpload":false,"site_id":1,"autoComplete":false,"isPremiumCountry":false,"userCountryCode":"IN","logPixelPath":"\/\/www.smhpix.com\/pixel.gif","tracking_url":"\/\/www.smhpix.com\/pixel.gif","cookies":{"unlimitedBanner":"off"},"essay":{"essayId":35948254,"categoryName":"Periodicals","categoryParentId":"17","currentPage":1,"format":"text","pageMeta":{"text":{"startPage":1,"endPage":1,"pageRange":"1-1","totalPages":1}},"access":"premium","title":"Mathematics in India Past Present and Future","additionalIds":[10,9,2,5],"additional":["Geography","Entertainment","Awards \u0026 Events","Computer Science"],"loadedPages":{"html":[],"text":[1]}},"user":null,"canonicalUrl":"http:\/\/www.studymode.com\/essays\/Mathematics-In-India-Past-Present-And-1058230.html","pagesPerLoad":50,"userType":"member_guest","ct":10,"ndocs":"1,500,000","pdocs":"6,000","cc":"10_PERCENT_1MO_AND_6MO","signUpUrl":"https:\/\/www.studymode.com\/signup\/","joinUrl":"https:\/\/www.studymode.com\/join","payPlanUrl":"\/checkout\/pay","upgradeUrl":"\/checkout\/upgrade","freeTrialUrl":"https:\/\/www.studymode.com\/signup\/?redirectUrl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.studymode.com%2Fcheckout%2Fpay%2Ffree-trial\u0026bypassPaymentPage=1","showModal":"get-access","showModalUrl":"https:\/\/www.studymode.com\/signup\/?redirectUrl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.studymode.com%2Fjoin","joinFreeUrl":"\/essays\/?newuser=1","siteId":1,"facebook":{"clientId":"306058689489023","version":"v2.9","language":"en_US"}}