Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century. In the classical period of Indian mathematics (400 AD to 1200 AD), important contributions were made by scholars like Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, and Bhaskara II. The decimal number system in use today was first recorded in Indian mathematics.Indian mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the concept of zero as a number, negative numbers, arithmetic, and algebra.In addition, trigonometry was further advanced in India, and, in particular, the modern definitions of sine and cosine were developed there. These mathematical concepts were transmitted to the Middle East, China, and Europe and led to further developments that now form the foundations of many areas of mathematics. Ancient and medieval Indian mathematical works, all composed in Sanskrit, usually consisted of a section of sutras in which a set of rules or problems were stated with great economy in verse in order to aid memorization by a student. This was followed by a second section consisting of a prose commentary (sometimes multiple commentaries by different scholars) that explained the problem in more detail and provided justification for the solution. In the prose section, the form (and therefore its memorization) was not considered so important as the ideas involved. All mathematical works were orally transmitted until approximately 500 BCE; thereafter, they were transmitted both orally and in manuscript form. The oldest extant mathematical document produced on the Indian subcontinent is the birch bark Bakhshali Manuscript, discovered in 1881 in the village of Bakhshali, near Peshawar (modern day Pakistan) and is likely from the 7th century CE. A later landmark in Indian mathematics was the development of the series expansions for trigonometric functions (sine, cosine, and arc tangent) by mathematicians of the Kerala school in the 15th century CE. Their remarkable work, completed two...

...Mathematics in Indian has a very long and hallowed record. Sulvasutras, the most ancient extant written sms messages (prior to 800 BCE) that deal with mathematics, clearly situation and make use of the so-called Pythagorean theorem apart from providing various exciting estimates to surds, in connection with the development of altars and fire-places of different forms and designs. By enough duration of Aryabhata (c.499 CE), the Native indian specialised mathematicians were completely acquainted with most of the mathematics that we currently show in our educational institutions, such as the techniques for getting rectangular form primary, dice primary, and so on. Among other things, Aryabhata also offered the differential program of sine operate in its finite-difference type and a means for restoring straight variety indeterminate program. The `bhavana' law of Brahmagupta (c.628) and the `cakravala' formula described by Jayadeva and Bhaskaracarya (12th dollar.) for restoring quadratic indeterminate program are some of the essential attractions in the development of geometry in Indian.
The Kerala Institution of Astronomy developed by Madhava (c.1340--1420) expands well into the 1800s. The specialised mathematicians and astronomers living on the financial institutions of the stream Nila in the southern area Malabar area of Kerala -- tripping upon the problem of finding the actual connection between the arc and the corresponding...

...INTRODUCTION:
"India was the motherland of our race and Sanskrit the mother of Europe's languages. India was the mother of our philosophy, of much of our mathematics, of the ideals embodied in Christianity... of self-government and democracy. In many ways, Mother India is the mother of us all."
- Will Durant, American Historian 1885-1981
Mathematics is an important field of study. Mathematics is essential as it helps in developing lots of realistic skills, in fact study of mathematics itself include the concepts related to the routine lives of human. It not only develops mathematical skills and concepts, it also helps in developing the attitudes, interest, and appreciation and provides opportunities to develop one’s own thinking. So, mathematics is undoubtedly a discipline which is imperative to know and study. Figure 1 clearly specifies all the skills that are developed by the mathematics. Mathematics starts from simple things and linear thinking that lead towards the more complex things and higher order thinking skills. Mathematics has taken centuries to develop in its present form and that’s why it will be really fruitful to know about its development.
Fig. 1, Importance of MathematicsC:\Users\naveen\Desktop\Untitled.png
Mathematics has played a very significant role in the progress...

...Mathematics in IndiaPast, Present and Future
What is mathematics?
“mathematics is a science of space, numbers and quantity”
Past:
Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century. In the classical period of Indian mathematics (400 AD to 1200 AD), important contributions were made by scholars like Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, and Bhaskara II. The decimal number system in use today was first recorded in Indian mathematics. Indian mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the concept of zero as a number, negative numbers, arithmaticm and algebra. In addition, trigonometry was further advanced in India, and, in particular, the modern definitions of sine and cosine were developed there. These mathematical concepts were transmitted to the Middle East, China, and Europe and led to further developments that now form the foundations of many areas of mathematics.
Present:
20th century
The 20th century saw mathematics become a mojor profession. Every year, thousands of new Ph.D.s in mathematics are awarded, and jobs are availablein teaching, research and industry. Mathematical collaborations of unprecedented size and scope took place in India. One of the more colorful figures...

...Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used to share storage devices.
* In 1995, the transmission speed capacity for Ethernet was increased from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. The ability of Ethernet to scale easily (such as quickly adapting to support new fiber optic cable speeds) is a contributing factor to its continued use today.[4]
Today, computer networks are the core of modern communication. All modern aspects of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) are computer-controlled. Telephony increasingly runs over the Internet Protocol, although not necessarily the public Internet. The scope of communication has increased significantly in the past decade. This boom in communications would not have been possible without the progressively advancing computer network. Computer networks, and the technologies that make communication between networked computers possible, continue to drive computer hardware, software, and peripherals industries. The expansion of related industries is mirrored by growth in the numbers and types of people using networks, from the researcher to the home user.
Properties
Computer networking may be considered a branch of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of the related disciplines.
A computer network has...

...MATHEMATICS IN INDIA-
PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE
Let’s begin with sloka 1.4 of “Sulba sutra”
“Deerkha chaturasrasya akshnayarajju:
Paarshwamaanee thiryangmaaneecha prithak bhoopathe
Kurutha: thadupayam karothee”
(The area of square of diagonal of a rectangle is the sum of the area of squares of its adjacent and opposite sides.)
Then let’s look at the famous Pythagoras theorem:
“The square on the hypotenuse of a right angled triangle is equal to the sum of squares of its sides”
The Sulba sutra was written on 12th century B.C. but the Pythagoras theorem was introduced on 6th century B.C, 600 years after Sulba sutra. That is, most of the works, theorems and concepts of mathematics existed in India on its own form even before in other countries. Let’s look at the glorious history of mathematics in India, its present state, and to what it is pointed.
Zero, the concept that laid foundation for the decimal system, the concept which made the beginning of all other mathematical ideas was originated in India. The invention of zero and decimal system was the reason for development of mathematics in India.
The fingerprints of Indian intelligence have fallen on the stage of mathematical operations too. Direct and inverse methods for addition and subtraction, 6...

...Terrorism: Past, Present, and Future
The best response to this network of terror is to build a network of our own -- a network of
like-minded countries and organizations that pools resources, information, ideas, and power.
Taking on the radical fundamentalists alone isn’t necessary, it isn’t smart, and it won’t succeed.-
Joe Biden
Revolutions come only when the public can be stirred into action. The status quo of a
region or nation cannot be broken unless there is a large public calling for radical changes to the
current regime. Since changing the psycho-emotional balance of the people is paramount to a
revolution’s momentum, it is commonplace for revolutionary groups to take drastic measures for
attention and sympathy. From these drastic measures, the concept of terrorism has evolved- the
concept of violence and public intimidation to engender politics favored by the offending group.
Terrorism is any political activity that relies on violence or the threat of violence to achieve its
ends. Much of the time terrorism targets ordinary citizens rather than government organizations.
Terrorists aim to create a climate of fear as a catalyst for political change or restructuring. The
goal for the terrorists is to demoralize the population, and at the same time to provoke the
government into a disproportionate response. An overreaction from the government would
ideally make the government look bad and give life to sympathy...

...Running head: AMERICA PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE
America Past, Present, and Future
Minh Tran
University of Phoenix
America Past, Present, and Future
Human emotions are complex. They express positive or negative reactions to external and internal stimuli. Emotion, behavior, and cognition influence each other. Thus, each emotion distinctly affects human motivation, learning, thinking, and physical acts. Emotions influence writers or authors in the way he or she expresses himself or herself in his or her writing. In this paper, the author will discuss how emotions in literature from the past, present, and future impact the way Nathaniel Hawthorne expressed his emotions when writing the books he has published.
Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Background relates to his Writing
Nathaniel Hawthorne was born on July 4, 1804, in Salem, Massachusetts. His ancestors were Puritans, who were the first settlers in the state. They came to the New World with Governor Winthrop in 1603. His ancestors were two prominent judges, one active in the persecution of the Quakers in the 1650s, the other in the witch trials of the 1690s, which Anne Hutchinson was the criminal. Nathaniel grew up in a religious family, and therefore, his religious beliefs influenced the way he wrote.
“Nathaniel Hawthorn rarely seemed at...

...Past, Present, and Future Paper
When I was a child, I knew that I wanted to be a nurse just like my mom. I started preparing myself by majoring in science, math, and typing in high school. I knew that these classes would one day prepare me for college. When I enter college at the University of Memphis after high school, I take all the prerequisites needed for the nursing program. Later, I entered nursing school at Baptist School of Nursing and I was well on my way to becoming a nurse. When I got in nursing school, I lost focus of why I was there and failed the nursing program. I decided to continue my education at Shelby State Community College (Southwest Community College) by retaking my biology classes to enter SSCC night nursing program.
Well I was going to college; I worked at Kroger part-time as a bakery clerk at night. There I meet my now husband at Kroger and we got married. Later, I entered SSCC night nursing program and started working for Kroger full-time as a cake decorator. I knew that nursing school, a full-time job, and a husband were going to be challenging, but I thought I could handle it. Everything was going fine until I was faced with a challenging issue. I was in my second Nursing class, Medical-Surgical Nursing, and I was pregnant with my first child. I thought once I had my child I would go back to Nursing School and finish. However, this plan did not work out, I knew that I could not work full-time, take...

1099 Words |
3 Pages

Share this Document

{"hostname":"studymode.com","essaysImgCdnUrl":"\/\/images-study.netdna-ssl.com\/pi\/","useDefaultThumbs":true,"defaultThumbImgs":["\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_1.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_2.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_3.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_4.png","\/\/stm-study.netdna-ssl.com\/stm\/images\/placeholders\/default_paper_5.png"],"thumb_default_size":"160x220","thumb_ac_size":"80x110","isPayOrJoin":false,"essayUpload":false,"site_id":1,"autoComplete":false,"isPremiumCountry":false,"userCountryCode":"US","logPixelPath":"\/\/www.smhpix.com\/pixel.gif","tracking_url":"\/\/www.smhpix.com\/pixel.gif","cookies":{"unlimitedBanner":"off"},"essay":{"essayId":35948254,"categoryName":"Periodicals","categoryParentId":"17","currentPage":1,"format":"text","pageMeta":{"text":{"startPage":1,"endPage":1,"pageRange":"1-1","totalPages":1}},"access":"premium","title":"Mathematics in India Past Present and Future","additionalIds":[10,9,2,5],"additional":["Geography","Entertainment","Awards \u0026 Events","Computer Science"],"loadedPages":{"html":[],"text":[1]}},"user":null,"canonicalUrl":"http:\/\/www.studymode.com\/essays\/Mathematics-In-India-Past-Present-And-1058230.html","pagesPerLoad":50,"userType":"member_guest","ct":10,"ndocs":"1,500,000","pdocs":"6,000","cc":"10_PERCENT_1MO_AND_6MO","signUpUrl":"https:\/\/www.studymode.com\/signup\/","joinUrl":"https:\/\/www.studymode.com\/join","payPlanUrl":"\/checkout\/pay","upgradeUrl":"\/checkout\/upgrade","freeTrialUrl":"https:\/\/www.studymode.com\/signup\/?redirectUrl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.studymode.com%2Fcheckout%2Fpay%2Ffree-trial\u0026bypassPaymentPage=1","showModal":"get-access","showModalUrl":"https:\/\/www.studymode.com\/signup\/?redirectUrl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.studymode.com%2Fjoin","joinFreeUrl":"\/essays\/?newuser=1","siteId":1,"facebook":{"clientId":"306058689489023","version":"v2.8","language":"en_US"}}