Kyle Smith
Math 1332
Fall 2011
McCullough-Pannell
How Mathematics is used in Firefighting

Math is used extensively in firefighting, partly because firefighters have so many jobs to do in the course of their work. As a volunteer firefighter, I have seen mathematics used in many areas of firefighting. If you don’t have a solid background in math, especially algebra, you will struggle to pass the required exams and have a hard time getting through many of the daily task required by firefighters. For instance, in pumping operations, rise over run calculations are essential, along with friction loss per foot of a pressure and volume of a moving water column in a hose line. You need to be quick thinking on your feet and know what formula/calculation you will be using because most of these calculations will be used in pressure situations. In a fuel loading situation, a basic formula is used to calculate given structure depending on its use and resources needed, including water supplies. Trigonometry and geometry are used to determine a given slope and fuel load as well. Temperature, wind direction and speed calculations are essential to safe brush and forest fire extinguishing. Firefighter aircrews have to use math to determine their fuel requirements and angle of attack for air drops of water and retardant over a wild land fire. As firefighters, we are required to obtain an EMTS certification during the course of our training. As part of this training we learn to determine heart rate, blood pressure and drug dosages which all use different math calculations. This is a very important part of saving lives and has to be done as precise as possible. Any error in a medical calculation can be extremely dangerous for person in need of help. On a lighter note, mathematics is even used when we are cooking dinner in the fire house. We measure out water, flour, sugar, etc. to prepare our meals together. As you...

...History of mathematics
A proof from Euclid's Elements, widely considered the most influential textbook of all time.[1]
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. The most ancient mathematical texts available arePlimpton 322 (Babylonian mathematics c. 1900 BC),[2] the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 2000-1800 BC)[3] and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 1890 BC). All of these texts concern the so-calledPythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.
The study of mathematics as a subject in its own right begins in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, who coined the term "mathematics" from the ancient Greekμάθημα (mathema), meaning "subject of instruction".[4]Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning andmathematical rigor in proofs) and expanded the subject matter of mathematics.[5] Chinese...

...Week 5
Final Exam
Continuous schedule from Friday , November 1st. 9am until Saturday , November 2nd., 23:59pm.
Monday, November 4, 2013
20%
100%
To obtain the opportunity to take your final exam you should have delivered at least 6 activities.
Please keep this Agenda at hand so that you can deliver you assignments on time.
Greetings,
Blanca Alanís
Posted by: BLANCA HILDA ALANIS PENA
Posted to: CEL.HI09107V.343.13320 Inglés VII
Bibliography
Posted on: Thursday, October 3, 2013
Hello guys,
The books we are going to use are:
Text book:
Richards, Jack C. & Sandy, Chuck (2009). Passages 2 (2nd ed.). New York, N.Y. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-68391-3
Workbook:
Richards, Jack C. & Sandy, Chuck (2009). Passages 2 (2nd ed.). New York, N.Y. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 978-0-521-68393-7
Make sure they are the 2nd. edition, because the 1st. edition is completely different.
In your course, in the Bibliography Section you have a link of a bookstore where you can buy the books. You can try other bookstores in your city, of course, but they don't usually have the book in stock.
Greetings,
Blanca Alanís
Posted by: BLANCA HILDA ALANIS PENA
Posted to: CEL.HI09107V.343.13320 Inglés VII
Grading in the courseWeek 5
Final Exam
Continuous schedule from Friday , November 1st. 9am until Saturday , November 2nd., 23:59pm.
Monday, November 4, 2013
20%
100%
To...

...AERIAL FIREFIGHTING
Introduction
Firefighters shall be deployed should all preventive measures fail. Unfortunately, the scale of forest fire could be so large that the number of ground firefighting crews would fall short. For instance, the fire in Kalimantan, Indonesia, in 1982 affected a scale of 3.5 million hectares of woods, its 1997 counterpart blazed across 5 million hectares (Boer, 2002); the 2009 forest fire in Southern Australia razed a relatively smaller but nonetheless significant area of 0.5 million hectare (Harrison et al, 2009). Considering that one hectare is about the size of two American football fields (Toro Au., n.d.), these figures alone are overwhelming enough to imply the extreme difficulty in forest firefighting, not to mention that access to inner part of woods could be impractical for fire engines or other land vehicles.
In light of the above-mentioned factors, aerial firefighting technologies are absolutely essential for countries like Indonesia where tropical forests prevail. As indicates by the term “aerial”, aircraft such as air tankers or helicopters loaded with water bombs or fire retardants are deployed to the fire scene – often remote or inaccessible by land transport – to extinguish or suppress the flame (Kaulfuß, 2011).
Main factors contributing to a successful aerial firefighting are accessibility to water resource, topography, and acumen. Prompt refills can be...

...concrete model.
Looking on the locality of the paper, I highly acknowledge the fact that the researchers described the current state of math education in the Philippines. They emphasized the fact that we are more focused on procedural knowledge rather than the more desired conceptual knowledge. That is our disadvantage because we usually train students to perform math without understanding or making connections on what they are doing. By mentioning this, the readers would really have an idea that the paper itself could be a solution to the problem mentioned. Moreover, it makes the thesis more realistic.
To sum up everything that was tackled, I could say that the thesis served to have an important purpose in the current state of Mathematics Education in the Philippines. It is very informative and feasible. Since it is a small study because it only involved 6 average students, we could propose more studies rooting from this which would have a bigger scope such as implementing the same study but now comparing it to the results gathered from high and low performing students....

...will be able to track up to 500 firefighters in a 50-story building within 1-3 meters of their location. (Pieper, Shannon)
SCBA’s (Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus) also have new changes coming to them. One innovation to the SCBA’s a while ago was the PASS alarm and that is an alarm that goes off when the pack is staying at a standstill for example when a firefighter goes down and stops moving for a couple seconds the alarm goes off and to shut it off you have to move around. Today they are coming out with End-of-service Time indicators (EOSTI), Face piece lens thermal degradation, Voice intelligibility requirements and Emergency breathing safety systems (buddy breathers). All of this new technology will help with saving lives in the firefighting world and make fighting fires and rescuing people go a lot more smoother and quicker with fewer accidents. (1981 SCBA Standard)
Works Cited
"History of Fire Fighting." History of Fire Fighting. NAED, n.d. Web.
16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.emergencydispatch.org/articles/historyoffirefighting.html>.
"A Little Fire Service History." Fire Service History. N.p., 2011. Web.
16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fireserviceinfo.com/history.html>.
Pieper, Shannon. "New Developments in SCBA & Firefighter Tracking
Technology." Firefighter Nation. Firefighter Nation, 1 Nov.
2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2012.
<http://www.firefighternation.com/article/technical-rescue-usar-...

...HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS
The history of mathematics is nearly as old as humanity itself. Since antiquity, mathematics has been fundamental to advances in science, engineering, and philosophy. It has evolved from simple counting, measurement and calculation, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects, through the application of abstraction, imagination and logic, to the broad, complex and often abstract discipline we know today.
From the notched bones of early man to the mathematical advances brought about by settled agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt and the revolutionary developments of ancient Greece and its Hellenistic empire, the story of mathematics is a long and impressive one.
Prehistoric Mathematics
The oldest known possibly mathematical object is the Lebombo bone, discovered in the Lebombo mountains of Swaziland and dated to approximately 35,000 BC. It consists of 29 distinct notches cut into a baboon's fibula. Also prehistoric artifacts discovered in Africa and France, dated between 35,000 and 20,000 years old, suggest early attempts to quantify time.
The Ishango bone, found near the headwaters of the Nile river (northeastern Congo), may be as much as 20,000 years old and consists of a series of tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone. Common interpretations are that the Ishango bone shows either the earliest known...

...SOLUTION GRADED ASSIGNMENT # 2 (5%)
This Assignment tests your knowledge of some aspects of course material covered in various
Topics. Prepare your response as a Microsoft Word document and submit in the Drop Box for
Assignment 2 before the closing time. All submissions must contained a signed Coursework
Accountability Statement declaring the work to be entirely yours. Assignments without the
Accountability Statement will not be marked.
The deadline for uploading this Graded Assignment is 3.30 pm (EC time) on Wednesday
November 5th, 2014.
Question 1 - Inequalities
A company makes two types of space-savers, english and italian. Each english type
requires 3 hours, 2 hours, and 2 hours, while each italian requires 2 hours, 1 hour, and
4 hours for cutting, assembling, finishing respectively.
The company has 300 hours available for cutting, 240 hours for assembling and
120 hours finishing . Each english type earns $85 in profit while the italian type earns $75.
a. If you are required to find the combinations of both types of space-savers that will
[6 mks]
maximize profits, list the inequalities that would be necessarry.
Let x be number of english type space-savers made and sold
Let y be number of italian type space-savers made and sold
3x + 2y ≤ 300
2x + y ≤ 240
2x + 4y ≤ 120
x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0
b. From a graph of the inequalities in part 𝑎. , − 𝐲𝐨𝐮 𝐚𝐫𝐞 𝐧𝐨𝐭 𝐫𝐞𝐪𝐮𝐢𝐫𝐞𝐝 𝐭𝐨 𝐬𝐮𝐛𝐦𝐢𝐭 𝐭𝐡𝐞 𝐠𝐫𝐚𝐩𝐡
[6 mks]
𝐢𝐧 𝐲𝐨𝐮𝐫 𝐚𝐧𝐬𝐰𝐞𝐫𝐬 − list the vertices of the...

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