Mathematics of the Greeks and the Mayans
Mathematics is the study of time, space, structure, and quantity which is used to calculate almost anything in the world from the amount of atoms in an element to calculating the air pressure in a room. Although levels of math such as calculus are not taught until college, the use and study of mathematics have been around since the beginning of time and the world wouldn’t be able to function without it. The term “mathematics” comes from the Greek word mathema which means study, knowledge, or learning. Along with philosophy and astronomy, the ancient Greeks were well known for their development and contribution as brilliant mathematicians. Despite their widely spread fame as the world’s first greatest mathematicians, the Greeks had competitors. My contention is that the Mayans were one of the top mathematicians of the ancient world and were even more advanced than the Greeks.

Ancient Greek mathematics has been developed since the early seventh century B.C. which could also be called the period during the Hellenistic Mathematics. Some of the greatest Ancient Greek mathematicians were Pythagoras, Aristotle, Anaxagoras, Euclid, Archimedes, Thales, and Aristarchus. These Greek mathematicians were big on the development of geometry which is a subdivision of math that focuses on shapes, size, and the relativity of space. Although their number system was based on letters of the alphabet and used units of five and ten, they therefore were not big on the processes of Algebra. However the Greeks became the masters of calculating solutions concerning volume, lengths and areas using geometric methods and theorems to solve algebraic equations. Despite contributions to modern day arithmetic such as the Pythagorean Theorem and Euclidian Geometry the Greeks were missing one essential part of math, one number that modern day civilization mathematics would not be able to function without. The Mayans included this number in their...

...HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS
The history of mathematics is nearly as old as humanity itself. Since antiquity, mathematics has been fundamental to advances in science, engineering, and philosophy. It has evolved from simple counting, measurement and calculation, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects, through the application of abstraction, imagination and logic, to the broad, complex and often abstract discipline we know today.
From the notched bones of early man to the mathematical advances brought about by settled agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt and the revolutionary developments of ancient Greece and its Hellenistic empire, the story of mathematics is a long and impressive one.
Prehistoric Mathematics
The oldest known possibly mathematical object is the Lebombo bone, discovered in the Lebombo mountains of Swaziland and dated to approximately 35,000 BC. It consists of 29 distinct notches cut into a baboon's fibula. Also prehistoric artifacts discovered in Africa and France, dated between 35,000 and 20,000 years old, suggest early attempts to quantify time.
The Ishango bone, found near the headwaters of the Nile river (northeastern Congo), may be as much as 20,000 years old and consists of a series of tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the bone. Common interpretations are that the Ishango bone shows either the earliest known...

...History of mathematics
A proof from Euclid's Elements, widely considered the most influential textbook of all time.[1]
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past.
Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. The most ancient mathematical texts available arePlimpton 322 (Babylonian mathematics c. 1900 BC),[2] the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 2000-1800 BC)[3] and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 1890 BC). All of these texts concern the so-calledPythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.
The study of mathematics as a subject in its own right begins in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, who coined the term "mathematics" from the ancient Greekμάθημα (mathema), meaning "subject of instruction".[4]Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning andmathematical rigor in proofs) and expanded the subject matter of mathematics.[5] Chinese...

...The evolution of mathematics might be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions, or alternatively an expansion of subject matter. The first abstraction, which is shared by many animals,[19] was probably that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges (for example) have something in common, namely quantity of their members.Evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have also recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, seasons, years.[20]
More complex mathematics did not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, and for astronomy.[21] The earliest uses of mathematics were in trading, land measurement, painting and weaving patterns and the recording of time.
In Babylonian mathematics elementary arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) first appears in the archaeological record. Numeracy pre-dated writing and numeral systems have been many and diverse, with the first known written numerals created by Egyptians in Middle Kingdom texts such as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus.[citation needed]
Between 600 and 300 BC the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics in its own right...

...MayansMathematics
The Mayan number system was developed by the ancient Maya civilization of Central America. Similar to the number system we use today, the Mayan system operated with place values. To achieve this place value system they developed the idea of a zero placeholder. The Maya seem to be the first people who used a place value system and a symbol for zero. Beyond these similarities there are some significant differences between the Mayan number system and our modern system. The Mayan system is in base 20 (vigesimal) rather than base 10 (decimal). This system also uses a different digit representation. The Mayan numbers are based on three symbols:
Why was Mathematics Important to the Mayans?
Mathematics was really important for the Mayans because they needed it to calculate astronomy and in the calendars.
The Mayans Number System
The Mayans numeral is a base-twenty (otherwise known as vigesimal) numeral system which was possibly developed from counting on fingers and toes.
How Their Number System Worked
Their addition and subtracting was simply adding up or taking away dots and bars. The Maya counting system had only three symbols: a dot representing the value of one, a bar representing a value of five and a shell representing zero. The mayan numbers were...

...mother of Europe's languages. India was the mother of our philosophy, of much of our mathematics, of the ideals embodied in Christianity... of self-government and democracy. In many ways, Mother India is the mother of us all."
- Will Durant, American Historian 1885-1981
Mathematics is an important field of study. Mathematics is essential as it helps in developing lots of realistic skills, in fact study of mathematics itself include the concepts related to the routine lives of human. It not only develops mathematical skills and concepts, it also helps in developing the attitudes, interest, and appreciation and provides opportunities to develop one’s own thinking. So, mathematics is undoubtedly a discipline which is imperative to know and study. Figure 1 clearly specifies all the skills that are developed by the mathematics. Mathematics starts from simple things and linear thinking that lead towards the more complex things and higher order thinking skills. Mathematics has taken centuries to develop in its present form and that’s why it will be really fruitful to know about its development.
Fig. 1, Importance of MathematicsC:\Users\naveen\Desktop\Untitled.png
Mathematics has played a very significant role in the progress and expansion of Indian culture for centuries. Mathematical ideas that originated in the Indian subcontinent have had a...

...concrete model.
Looking on the locality of the paper, I highly acknowledge the fact that the researchers described the current state of math education in the Philippines. They emphasized the fact that we are more focused on procedural knowledge rather than the more desired conceptual knowledge. That is our disadvantage because we usually train students to perform math without understanding or making connections on what they are doing. By mentioning this, the readers would really have an idea that the paper itself could be a solution to the problem mentioned. Moreover, it makes the thesis more realistic.
To sum up everything that was tackled, I could say that the thesis served to have an important purpose in the current state of Mathematics Education in the Philippines. It is very informative and feasible. Since it is a small study because it only involved 6 average students, we could propose more studies rooting from this which would have a bigger scope such as implementing the same study but now comparing it to the results gathered from high and low performing students....

...INTRODUCTION
As the greatest Mathematician “GAUSS” has said –“MATHS IS THE QUEEN OF SCIENCE”, maths is truly the guiding force of human soul. Maths is the purest form of study of nature which comprise of a deep and rational comparison of quantities, structures, spaces, nature of change of different inter-relations and much more. Mathematicians seek out various patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians counter examines the facts by repeated and repeated logical transformations these experiments may take years and years of thorough research and dedication.
USE OF MATHS IN EVERY DAY LIFE
“I love those who love geometry”-said Plato, the famous Greek philosopher and thinker.Algebra, Arithmetic, Geometry are three major components of maths. Algebra is study of symbols, Arithmetic deals with numbers and geometry plays with figures. The structure of any railway bridge is supported with triangular shaped support system(geometry),saving is vital for ones peaceful oldage (arithmetic),the combinations of different dresses one should wear so that no continues days has same pattern(algebra),all these are nothing but some simple yet important usage of maths in ones daily life.
Where to go for shopping, choosing a shampoo or planning a holiday, all these things of our daily routine has something in common-its maths. Numerical and logical thinking plays a vital part in each of these every day activities. A good understanding of maths is essential for making sense of all...

...Assignment 1 Miss. Dzigbodi Ama Agbodra.
A brief history of Mathematics. Ecs/13/01/0396
The area of study known as the history of mathematics is primarily an investigation into the origin of discoveries in mathematics and, to a lesser extent, an investigation into the mathematical methods and notation of the past. Before the modern age and the worldwide spread of knowledge, written examples of new mathematical developments have come to light only in a few locales. The most ancient mathematical texts available are Plimpton 322 (Babylonian mathematics c. 1900 BC), the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 2000-1800 BC) and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus (Egyptian mathematics c. 1890 BC). All of these texts concern the so-called Pythagorean theorem, which seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry.
The study of mathematics as a subject in its own right begins in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, who coined the term "mathematics" from the ancient Greek μάθημα (mathema), meaning "subject of instruction". Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning and mathematical rigor in proofs) and expanded the subject matter of mathematics....