: The Secretary, Central Board of Secondary Education, Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi - 110092 : Multi Graphics, 5745/81, Reghar Pura, Karol Bagh, New Delhi - 110005. Phone : 25783846 :

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Foreword
A major part of the formative years of a child’s life is spent in a school and hence the importance of making it a place of joyous learning has been engaging the attention of educationists. The National Curriculum Framework 2005 has elaborated on the insights of Learning without Burden to ensure that a child is not taken away from the joy of being young by de-linking school knowledge from every day experience. One of the most important areas in this respect is regarding mathematics learning in schools. Mathematical phobia has been a common jargon in school parlance that has created an elite class of good students of mathematics leaving behind a large number of students who fear the subject. In an endeavour to impress upon the schools that this misconception about the subject is mainly due to wrong teaching practices which do not link the subject with real life, the Board had introduced the concept of Mathematics Laboratory in schools up to Secondary level. It is essential to know that mathematics is very much related with real life. It is a vehicle of communication just as every language is. Through mathematics we can describe, understand and work with physical phenomena with utmost precision. The subject has application in almost all walks of life. The symbols and operations are only mechanical tools but the concepts themselves are much more than these and are very much real and related to...

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Set (mathematics)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about what mathematicians call "intuitive" or "naive" set theory. For a more detailed account, see Naive set theory. For a rigorous modern axiomatic treatment of sets, see Set theory.
An example of a Venn diagram
The intersection of two sets is made up with the objects contained in both sets
In mathematics, a set is a collection of...

...Zero in Mathematics
Zero as a number is incredibly tricky to deal with. Though zero provides us with some useful mathematical tools, such as calculus, it presents some problems that if approached incorrectly, lead to a breakdown of mathematics as we know it.
Adding, subtracting and multiplying by zero are straightforward.
If c is a real number,
c+0=c
c-0=c
c x 0=0
These facts are widely known and regarded to hold true in every situation.
However,...

...Introduction
Mathematics is an indispensable subject of study. It plays an important role in forming the basis of all other sciences which deal with the material substance of space and time.
What is Mathematics?
Mathematics may be described as the fundamental science. It may be broadly described as the science of space, time and number. The universe exists in space and time, and is constituted of units of matter. To calculate the extension or...

...Why study Mathematics?
The main reason for studying mathematics to an advanced level is that it is interesting and enjoyable. People like its challenge, its clarity, and the fact that you know when you are right. The solution of a problem has an excitement and a satisfaction. You will find all these aspects in a university degree course.
You should also be aware of the wide importance of Mathematics, and the way in which it is advancing at a...

...of any circle's circumference to its diameter in the Euclidean plane; this is the same value as the ratio of a circle's area to the square of its radius. It is approximately equal to 3.14159265 in the usual decimal notation. Many formulae from mathematics, science, and engineering involve π, which makes it one of the most important mathematical constants.
π is an irrational number, which means that its value cannot be expressed exactly as a fraction m/n, where m and n are...

...THE FEAR OF MATHEMATICSMathematics is often called the "queen of the sciences. It is a crucially important tool in the study of other scientific disciplines, in addition to being a science in its own right. Its value to scientific accomplishment is as innumerable as it is invaluable. Regarded as the nucleus of the science world itself, most celebrated scientific achievements could hardly have had a jumpstart without the guiding precepts of the basic modules of...

...Theory of Knowledge
Éanna OBoyle
ToK Mathematics
“... what the ordinary person in the street regards as mathematics is usually nothing more than the operations of counting with perhaps a little geometry thrown in for good measure. This is why banking or accountancy or architecture is regarded as a suitable profession for someone who is ‘good at figures’. Indeed, this popular view of what mathematics is, and what is required to be good at it, is...

...Mathematics of the Greeks and the Mayans
Mathematics is the study of time, space, structure, and quantity which is used to calculate almost anything in the world from the amount of atoms in an element to calculating the air pressure in a room. Although levels of math such as calculus are not taught until college, the use and study of mathematics have been around since the beginning of time and the world wouldn’t be able to function without it. The...

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