Turbo charger is the advanced technology in automotive industry which uses exhaust gasses produced by the engine by sucking it from the blow air back into the engine. The additional air is supplemented with fuel by the ECU (electronic control unit). That causes the engine to produce much more power as it is being supplied with more air and fuel than it possibly could without it. A naturally aspirated engine, or "N/A" engine, has to "suck" air through the intake manifolds, throttle body, ait filter, etc. With this setup, the most air pressure that can enter the combustion chamber of the engine is a bit less than the current atmospheric pressure. With the turbo, air is being blown into the chamber with positive pressure so that much more air and fuel can enter. A typical turbocharged engine will generate 7 to 10 psi of maximum positive pressure, or "boost". Simply:
Turbo charger is a small radial fan pump driven by the energy of the exhaust gases of an engine. A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor on a shared shaft. The turbine converts exhaust heat and pressure to rotational force, which is used to drive the compressor.
The turbocharger, or "turbo", is mounted directly to the exhaust manifold, here turbine impeller is attached to a short shaft where exhaust gases will pass. On the other side of this shaft is a compressor turbine, where through air filter the air is pulled out and blows it into the intake manifold. So basically, the energy from the expelled exhaust gasses, which would normally be wasted on a N/A engine, is being used to pump air back into the engine. The shaft is supported by a bearing housing that is lubricated and cooled by an oil line from the engine. Since engine exhaust has such high temperatures, the exhaust side of the turbo can reach thousands of degrees F. This is why it is so critical that the engine oil be changed religiously...