Irene T. Merino
Sept. 20, 2012
Materials for Developing Speaking Skills
According to Bygate, Speaking skills maybe viewed into 2 basic aspects: 1)Motor Receptive Skills- involved mastering of sounds and sructures not necessarily in any particular context. 2) Interaction Skills-involves making decisions about what and how to say things in specific communicative situations to convey the right intentions to maintain relationships.
More research on language awareness suggest s that the teaching sequence does not have to be structured before the communication of meanings, but content –based activities can help learners to experience and and respond to meanings.Arguably, speaking skills are best developed when learners learn eventually to take control of their own performance from an insider persperctive rather than constantly dictated to by an outsider manipulation.
As viewed by Tomlinson, second language teaching materials can be treated not only by writers, but also by teachers and learners. In other words, the act of developing materials should be understood beyond the act of writing scripts for coursebooks, and in fact can bedynamic, creative process which stretches from the writers desk to real classroom. Tomlinson’s perecption coincides with Nunan’s vision that communication should be seen as process rather than a set of products. It is also closely related calls the “process syllabuss”. According to this syllabus, when materials are scripted by a writer, they appear in the form of a predesigned plan, which should not be final production yet but be open to reinterpretation by the users of that plan. In other words, the happening of task implementation in the classroom can serve as a poweful tool for relevant materials to be jointly discovered and created. Ideally, if materials are constructed for speaking skills, then the interactive process by the designer and the users should take place through speaking, since it would be unrealistic for participants simply to sit there and imagine silently how speech might work from written script.
CLT has made the teaching od spoken language a good deal for inspiring, effective and meaningful, which is clearly the reason why the approach is still in use and coursebooks using it continue to sell. 1960s
while many theorists still emphasized the learning of the linguistic system as the main method to master the 2nd language(Johnson, 1982:8-22), criticism aimed at a mechanical language practice began to appear, and such expressions as communicative, meaningful activities started to emerge in many academic discussions. 1970s
continued to see the most explicit debate with the criticism of structural design, leading to what was regarded as many as the” communicative revolution”(McDonough and Shaw)
began to witness many attempts to make the communicative approach less extreme, that is by laying emphasis merely on use and ignoring the learner's need for linguistic knowledge. Specific points of such reactions were criticism that in fact the new methodology was attempting to replace the structural approach. (Dubin and Olshtain, 1986;88); the criticism that in fact the new method had not made the learning of grammatical knowledge any easier than before and the appeal not to deny the value of structural framework in supporting rules for use. 1990s-
Saw the idea of multidimensional syllabus becoming more explicitly and systematically addressed, which opened up new possibilities for encompassing a more comprehensive series of teaching dimensions such as functions and notions, roles and skills, themes and situations. The main purpose of this kind of syllabus, as pointed out by Mcdonough and Shaw, is to build a range of communicative criteria at the same time as acknowledging the need to provide systematic practice in the formal proprieties of the language.
Trends in Materials for Speaking Skills...
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