Materials for Computers and Communication

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Information Technology for Management
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MATERIALS FOR COMPUTERS AND COMMUNICATIONS

ITM – A
Group No. PP12
About the Group Members
Roll No.NameEducational BackgroundWork ExperienceMobile NumberEmail ID 56Akhil SonthaliaB.Com(Hons)
St. Xaviers College, Kolkata, University of Calcutta (2004-2007)Fresher09930207685me@akhilsonthalia.com 57Milind TeckchandaniB.A.(Hons)Economics
Shaheed Bhagat Singh College,University of Delhi (2005-2008)Fresher09769144074milindtec@hotmail.com 58Bappaditya ThakurB.E(Civil)
Bengal Engineering & Science University, Shibpur (2000-2004)45 Months: HCC (13 Months), CMERI (27 Months), L&T – S&L (5 Months) 09769269220bappa_286@hotmail.com 59Agamdeep SinghB.Tech(Agriculture Engg.)

Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana, (1999-2003)58 Months: TAFE Ltd.(23 Months), Escorts Ltd.(4 Months), Godrej (31 Months)09769278112agam_tafe@rediffmail.com 60Amit WadhwaB.Com(Hons)
Bhawanipur Education Society College, Kolkata, University of Calcutta (2004-2007)Fresher09769452094amit_wadhwa_19@yahoo.co.in

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to thank Prof. Devendra Jha, who helped us explore Information Technology. Through this paper, we gained insight into the manufacture of the computers along with the materials used in it and also in the communication equipments.

The group would like to specially thank Mr. Arunav Dey (B.E, Electronics), Mr. Harsh Agarwal (B. Tech, E&I) and Mr. Ankur Gupta (B.E, ECE) for their guidance on certain aspects of the paper.

In the end, we would like to extend special thanks to each other for co-operating at every levels and making this project a success.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sl. No.TopicsPage No.
01.Introduction05
02.
03.
04.
05.
06.
07.Electronic Materials
Semiconductor Crystals
Photo Resist Films
Electric Connections
Packaging Materials
Precursors06
06
07
08
08
09
08.
09.
10.
11.
12.Photonic Materials
Crystalline Materials
Epitaxial Layers
Optical Switching
Optical Transmission10
10
11
11
12
13.Computer Hardware and Peripherals13
14.References15
15.Comments and Review16

INTRODUCTION
The innovation of computer has the most significant impact on human civilization than any other innovation of nineteenth century. In the beginning, computer was introduced mainly as a computing system. Solution of huge numerical problems with large number of variables became possible with the help of computer. Later, people started to use it for automation of process. Industrial production witnessed a huge growth in terms of quantity and quality as well. During the last half of nineteenth century the world discovered the potential of computer as a means of faster communication. Computer made it possible to exchange information in the fraction of a second. However, this advancement in communication would not have been possible by computer alone if there had not been subsequent development in the field of electronics. The basic function of computers in communication system is to process and transmit information in the form of electronic signals. These signals are the result of movement of electrons. Materials which are involved in generation and transmission of this signal are called electronic materials. Photons i.e. the constituent particles of light are also used in signal generation and transmission which is called optical signal. Materials used in producing optical signal are called photonic material. Obviously, photonics has increased the speed of data processing significantly. In this paper some features of the electronic materials and photonic materials have been discussed very briefly.

ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
Semiconductor Crystals
Semiconductors are materials which have a conductivity between conductors (generally metals) and nonconductors or insulators (such as most ceramics). Semiconductors can be pure elements, such as silicon or germanium,...
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