c) Material deprivation can effect educational achievement by the following ways:
Poor housing is a factor because if students are living in a bad conditions they won’t do as well in school, if a house is overcrowded then the student will find it harder to do private study and homework. If a Child is not settled in a house and constantly has to move location this means that they will be moving school frequently and never be settled, disrupts their education. If a child lives in poor conditions such as damp mouldy conditions this would make them more prone to illnesses and they would miss days of school due to health problems.
d) There has been a lot of evidence to show how working class children and underachievers are linked to them being culturally deprived. According to cultural theorists, many working class families fail to socialise their children adequately.
Many Sociologists argue that working class children are brought up with a lack of books, educational toys and activities that would stimulate a child’s intellectual development so they start school without having the intellectual skills needed to progress. J.W.B Douglas argues that working class parents are less likely to support their child’s development be reading or playing educational activities in the home and this is why they scored lower on tests of ability. Bernstein and young also say that the way mother think about and choose toys for children influences their development.middle class mother are more likely to choose toys that encourage thinking and reasoning skills and prepare children for school.
Language is also important. The middle class children are raised with a restricted speech code where there is limited vocabulary and sentences are grammatically simple. Elaborated code is more used by teachers, textbooks, exams and contains more complex sentences. Working class children are at a disadvantage when they start school because they find it...