A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ON THE CONCEPT AND VARIABLES OF JOB SATISFACTION SHWETA LALWANI Assistant Professor, School of Management, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Udaipur (India)
The Paper reviews and clusters the literature on “Job Satisfaction”. It focuses on its research studies on understanding of the concept, various factors influencing it and proposes directions for future research.
KEYWORDS: Job Satisfaction, achievement, factors to Job Satisfaction, affiliation need, rewards, autonomy, work environment, organizational commitment, attitudes, leadership style, turnover, absenteeism , tools of Measurement, Job Descriptive Index, theories of Job Satisfaction, task performance.
Job Satisfaction is determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. It represents several related attitudes and is an emotional response to a job situation. Various factors contribute to satisfaction pertaining to a job ranging from personal to work and organizational factors. Much of its nature, consequences and factors have been propagated in theories and several research studies. The paper gives a comprehensive review of studies made in the area and throws light on future areas for further research.
DEFINING JOB SATISFACTION
Hoppock (1935, p. 47) defined job satisfaction as “any combination of psychological, physiological, and environmental circumstances that causes a person truthfully to say, ‘I am satisfied with my job’. Many scholars have measured the level of job satisfaction. . Locke (1969, 1976) defined job satisfaction as "a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences". Graham (1982, p. 68) defined Job satisfaction as "the measurement of one's total feelings and attitudes towards one's job". Job satisfaction is the constellation of attitudes about job. Spector (1985) found that if the employees find their job fulfilling and rewarding, they tend to be more satisfied with their jobs. Nash (1985) has extensively reviewed the nature of job satisfaction in the industrial world and found that job satisfaction is attributed not only to one but many factors and varies in its impact on individuals satisfaction with life because work varies in importance from individual to individual. He also found that people who take their job as prime interest experience high level of job satisfaction. Their job satisfaction will be further enhanced if they are doing work that is utilizing their skills. He also found that job satisfaction is an indicator of employee’s motivation to come to work and it changes with age and employment cycle. It is the degree to which employees enjoy their jobs (McCloskey and McCain 1987). Rue and Byars (1992) refer to job satisfaction as an individual’s mental state about the job. Job satisfactions consist of overall or general job satisfaction, as well as a variety of satisfaction facets (Cranny et al., 1992; Friday &Friday, 2003). Schermerhorn (1993) defines job satisfaction as an affective or emotional response towards various aspects of an employee’s work According to Cherrington (1994), research on job satisfaction has identified two aspects to understanding the concept of job satisfaction, namely the facet satisfaction and overall satisfaction. These two concepts are explained as follows: Facet Satisfaction : Facet satisfaction refer to the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with
various facets or aspects of the job (John, 1988) Cherrington (1994)it refers to the various aspects or facets of the job as
the individual’s attitude about their pay, the work itself- whether it is challenging, stimulating and attractive, and the 22 supervisors- weather they possess the softer managerial skills as well as being competent in their...