Traditionally, in the case of breast cancer, the whole breast was removed. Currently the decision to do the mastectomy is based on various factors including breast size, number of lesions, biologic aggressiveness of a breast cancer, the availability of adjuvant radiation, and the willingness of the patient to accept higher rates of tumor recurrences after lumpectomy and radiation. Outcome studies comparing mastectomy to lumpectomy with radiation have suggested that routine radical mastectomy surgeries will not always prevent later distant secondary tumors arising from micro-metastases prior to discovery, diagnosis, and operation. Contents
* 1 Rates
* 2 Mastectomy indications
* 3 Types of mastectomy
* 4 Gallery
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 External links
Mastectomy rates vary tremendously worldwide, as was documented by the 2004 'Intergroup Exemestane Study', an analysis of surgical techniques used in an international trial of adjuvant treatment among 4,700 women with early breast cancer in 37 countries. The mastectomy rate was highest in central and eastern Europe at 77%. The USA had the second highest rate of mastectomy with 56%, western and northern Europe averaged 46%, southern Europe 42% and Australia and New Zealand 34%.  Mastectomy indications
Despite the increased ability to offer breast-conservation techniques to patients with breast cancer, there exist certain groups who may be better served by traditional mastectomy procedures including:
* women who have already had radiation therapy to the affected breast * women with 2 or more areas of cancer in the same breast that are too far apart to be removed through 1 surgical incision, while keeping the appearance of the breast satisfactory * women whose initial lumpectomy along with (one or more) re-excisions has not completely removed the cancer * women with certain serious connective tissue diseases such as scleroderma, which make them especially sensitive to the side effects of radiation therapy * pregnant women who would require radiation while still pregnant (risking harm to the fetus) * women with a tumor larger than 5 cm (2 inches) that doesn't shrink very much with neoadjuvant chemotherapy * women with a cancer that is large relative to her breast size * Women who have tested positive for a deleterious mutation on the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene and opt for prophylactic removal of the breasts * male breast cancer patients
 Types of mastectomy
There are a variety of types of mastectomy in use, and the type that a patient decides to undergo (or whether he or she will decide instead to have a lumpectomy) depends on factors such as size, location, and behavior of the tumor (if there is one), whether or not the surgery is prophylactic, and whether or not the patient intends to undergo reconstructive surgery.
* Simple mastectomy (or "total mastectomy"): In this procedure, the entire breast tissue is removed, but axillary contents are undisturbed....