I n Pakistan, the availability of mass media falls much short of international standards. For example, i n Pakistan 1.8 copies of newspapers, 2.9 radio sets, 0.6 T.V. sets and C. 5 cinema seats were available for every 100 persons as compared to the UNESCO suggeeion of 10 newspapers, 5 radio sets, 2 T.V. sets and 2 cinema seats for 100 persons. The facilities in Pakistan in this area as i n other social sectors are lower than the average for South-East Asia Region. This is connected with the low rate sf literacy and low per capita income levels.
2. The development programme included in the Fifth Plan, 1978-83, envisages f ucher growth of radio and television in particular and other informatlon m ed~a.rl general. Besides increasing the rural coverage both in terms of i
area and population, emphasis will be placed on adult functional literacy and non-formal instructional programmes in collaboration with the Government agencies concerned.
3. The major public sector media agencies are Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation and Pakistan Television Corporation. The expansion of physical facilities is subject to financial constraints because these agencies are not covering their normal operating expenses and a subsidy has to be provided to them. Steps have to be taken not only to improve their working efficiency but also to initiate measures to achieve a better ratio between income and expenditure. Objectives
4. The main objectives for the mass media sector during the Fifth Plan will be:
(i) T o bring in larger areas and population of the less developed regions within reach of radio and T.V. signals.
(ii) T o strengthen the role of the media in instructional and educational fields specially for the less privileged sections of the society. (iii) T o create awareness o qthe problems and prospects of rural development through the media In order to win support, cooperation and participation of the people for accelerated growth in rural areas. (iv) T o improve the operational efficiency and s tr~ngthcnhe performance t
of the media in general and of radio and T.V. In particular. ( y ) T o make the media professionally and technically proficient in effective handling of development support communication in order to consolidate the past achievements in the economic field and realise the future targets end objectives of economic planning.
To mtiuld the information and entertainment content of the programme in such a way that the listenersY/viewers'interest is maintained. BROADCASTING
5. Radio i n Pakistan has made considerable progress as a vehicle for spread of information and a s a source of entertainment. It has, however, been comparativelv less effective in its educational role. The Government is fully conscious of its ~ otential n bringing about socio-economic change and is i
aware of its capability of motivating people towards progress through systematic educational and instructional programmes. This capability springs from the advantage that radio enjoys over other mass media in terms of cost, reach and iml?act. Broadcasting facilities can be expanded at a comparatively lower cost as against those of television, film and the press. Radio reaches the maximum number o f p e ~ p l enstantaneously and is suitable both for the educated and the i
illiterate. The transistors have made it poss~blet o overcome the constraint of electricity,
Development in 6970-78
6 . I n 1970, the area and population coverage stood at 25 per cent and 62 per cent respectively, compared to only 6 per cent and 21 per cent in 1947. The objective of development during 1970-78 was to further extend a ad strengthen the basic medium-wave coverage i n the country and to provide second channel broadcasts at the major stations. Priority was attached to expanding external services with a view to projecting Pakistan abroad. Some of the major schemes completed during this period were (i) two medium-wave transmitters of 120...