It is important for companies, especially for one that is rapidly expanding and continuously reorganizing itself, to gradually motivate its staff so as to stay ahead of its competitors and to give the best product experience to its customers and consumers. Motivation is the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior (Miller A, George, Fellbaum, Christiane, Tengi, Randee, Langone, Helen. (2009). Define Motivation. Available: http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=motivation. Last accessed 03 Jan 2009.). Companies constantly face the key issue of motivation while trying to re-brand itself or switch its focus to a different product. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the use of behavioral viewpoints of Abraham Maslow and Frederick Hertzberg to a company like Cisco and apply these theories so as to contribute to Cisco's development as a whole.
Issues that will be discussed are the two types of behavioral viewpoints namely, Maslow's hierarchy-of-needs theory and Hertzberg's two-factor theory, compare these two theories and apply them to analyse the motivation needs of people in a company like Cisco.
Maslow's hierarchy-of-needs theory
According to Maslow's hierarchy-of-needs theory (Maslow, in Bartol 2008), individual needs form a five-level hierarchy. Each level is dependant on the previous one and the hierarchy cannot exist if one is absent. When all levels of the hierarchy exist and are met, the individual is said to be highly motivated and are able to reach their full potential.
In this hierarchy, the base of it forms the individual's psychological needs which is the key factor for survival. Examples of this can be in the form of basic pay, food, water and shelter. Next, the individual is concerned with their safety and security needs so as to feel confident, secure and free from threats in their jobs. Examples of this are job security, job benefits like life insurance and also safety regulations that are in place when they work. Once the individual feels safe and secure, the attention is turned to relationships within the company to fulfill their belongingness or social needs. This gives them a feeling of being accepted and allows them to interact more freely with their colleagues. Examples of this are good co-workers, peers, superiors and customers. Supported by these three levels, only then can the individual focus on their esteem needs which allows them to have a positive self-image and have their contributions be valued and appreciated. Examples of this are the opportunity to helm important projects, recognition and prestigious office locations. Finally, the highest level of the hierarchy is self-actualisation needs. In this level, the individual is highly motivated and is more concern with bringing the company to new heights rather than 'lower-order needs' (Kaliprasaad 2006). Examples of this are the ability to do challenging projects, opportunities for innovation and creativity and training (Maslow, in Bartol 2008, p.446).
Hertzberg's two-factor theory
According to Hertzberg's two-factor theory (Hertzberg, in Bartol 2008), individual needs make up a two-pronged approach where there is a factor which prevented workers from being dissatisfied and also a factor which kept workers satisfied and motivated. A neutral point exists in between where workers are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied. In this neutral point, workers are still content with working but are unable to reach their full potential and thus not benefiting the company as a whole. The factor which prevented workers from being dissatisfied is known as the hygiene factor and some examples of this are basic pay, working conditions, supervisors, company policies and fringe benefits. These forms the basic needs for an individual to continue working without being dissatisfied. However, if certain factors are...