What are the most common, distinguishing features of Native American cultures at the time of contact? -mostly lived in hunter-gatherer or agricultural communities governed by kin ties; adopted more advanced weaponry for swifter prey; simple kin-based groupings evolved into complex tribal structures, cemented by rituals, founding myths and distinctive crafts -Mesoamericans fashioned societies ruled by warrior-kings and priests, and created civilizations whose art, religion and economy were as complex as those of Europe and the Mediterranean world
How would you compare and contrast the worldviews of Europeans and Native Americans? -Europeans viewed Native Americans as inferior
-Native Americans were not aware of Europeans
What are the distinguishing features of African society before the advent of the transatlantic slave trade? -a series of rivers provided easy access to woodlands and savannas of interior where most ppl lived -few coastal cities, because of little seaborne trade
-lived in small villages and farmed modest plots; men cleared, women planted and harvested the crops -socially stratified societies with kings and princes; some lived in city-states producing valuable goods; and some in stateless cities organized by household and lineage -polytheistic; diseases killed much livestock; forest dwellers would trade oil and nuts w savanna dwellers for livestock and other goods; spoke different dialects
How do plants, animals, and microorganisms help make history? How did they play a role in this period? -Through the Columbian Exchange, food products significantly increased agricultural yields and population growth in other continents. Disease wiped out lands to which the Spaniards came to. The worlds had combined with Spanish, Indians, and Africans. Eurasian and African livestock, grain crops, and diseases now became part of life in the Americas. The fur trade also killed off so many animals that some could go extinct and streams ran faster because of fewer beaver dams and underbrush grew denser with fewer deer.
How did religion and religious thought play a role in colonization in the New World? -Spanish viewed Indian’s religion as inferior and not correct. This led to the Indians being treated like slaves and developed conflicts between the Indians and new immigrants. These conflicts would end up sapping Spain’s strength. Protestant England was rising in the 16th century and many wanted to escape the Roman Catholic Church of New England.
Was the Europeans conquest of the Indians inevitable?
-Yes, Europeans viewed the Indians as inferior people. All countries were attempting to make themselves the superpower of the world at all costs. Religion was clashing and many hoped for a new life, discovery, and rise to power.
How would you compare and contrast British, French, and Spanish colonization? -Spanish conquistadors conquered South America and Florida and completely destroyed all Mesoamerican civilizations and Indian civilizations in North America as well. Spanish peoples conflicted with Indians and treated them as slaves and inferior people. The Spanish wanted to convert all Indians to Christianity. -French were confronting native peoples in eastern Canada and NE America. French engaged in indentured servitude but not many people came to New France because the French were focused on gaining more land in Europe instead of establishing overseas lands. The French did not exploit Indian labor, they tried to adapt Christian beliefs to the Indians’ needs. -British initially wanted to set up a trading outpost but created a tobacco growing economy instead based on slavery and indentured servitude. Soon British people were coming to Americas for religious freedom as opposed to economic purposes. The Catholics and Protestants developed colonies in the New world. The British immediately had conflicts with Indians such as the Indian War of 1622.
How did the experience of British settlement vary from colony...
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