EDA3046 Past paper – Oct/Nov 2012
1.1 Holistic Environment (5) - environment is more than just nature. Everything around us is part of our environment. We must decide how important it is for us to conserve it and whether we want to conserve it. The space created by personalities, influences perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in the environment. Aggression, love, helpfulness et cetera influence people’s attitudes towards environment and others. 1.2 Environmental Education (4) – a holistic study of the total environment and creating positive attitudes towards the environment. It is concerned with actions taken or skills learned to prevent environmental problems. Also see the IUCN (1972) definition on p. 7 of Study Guide. 1.3 Sustainable Development (2) – is a relatively new, confusing and controversial concept. If it is to become a reality on a local, national and global scale, new priorities must be set, new decisions made and new programmes and policies created. 1.4 Ecosystem (2) - a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. 1.5 Biodiversity (2) – the variety among living and non-living organisms in our environment. 1.6 Overpopulation (2) – the constant growth of humans that causes environmental stress/strain. 1.7 Urbanisation (2) – many people living rural or simple lifestyles are migrating to the city centres causing an increasing need for further construction of buildings etc. 1.8 Desertification (2) – a result of land degradation where the biological potential of the soil and the ability to support populations is diminished. 1.9 Deforestation (2) – the conversion of forests to non-forests uses such as farming, selective timber cutting. 1.10 Pollution (2) – poisoning of the environment with substances that reduce the ability to support life or poisoning the environment with substances beyond its capacity to handle.
Question 3 (25) this question is the same as question 6 of assignment 2. We must study this question according how we answered it in our assignment. Hopefully we will get a memo for assignment 2.
Question 4 (20)
International Environmental Education in the 20th century
Environmental Education in the international arena: 1990 – 2002. 1992 Earth Summit had a document called ‘Agenda 21’ emphasized the need for wide scale environmental Ed, and the process involving teachers + students. Sustainable development became a major factor. A Treaty on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies recognized the central role of education in shaping social action and values. The NGO Forum Principles were formed as a result of this (see pg. 43) These principles had a large social base. In 1997 a review was done of the progress since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit. It was determined that little had changed and that mainstream educators had not responded well to the environmental crisis. Unesco published a document entitled “education for a sustainable future: a transdisciplinary vision for concerted action’ with the aim of spurring debate and mobilizing action in highlighting the importance of environmental education and public awareness on sustainability. The growing prominence of “education for sustainability”. Education for Sustainability has started to provide a sense of reorientation and focus for environmental education around the globe. Janse van Rensburg alerts environmental educators to the need for a more reflective view of change processes. She focuses on a responsive process of change. Education has been highlighted for a way to change in social-ecological, political and economic ways.
Environmental Education in the international arena: 1990-2002 1992 – Earth Summit had a document called “Agenda 21’ emphasized the need for wide scale environmental Ed, and the process involving teachers and students. Sustainable development...
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