Marketing Mix

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The marketing mix is a business tool used in marketing and by marketing professionals. The marketing mix is often crucial when determining a product or brand's offering, and is often synonymous with the four Ps: price, product, promotion, and place; in service marketing, however, the four Ps have been expanded to the seven Ps or eight Ps to address the different nature of services. In recent times, the concept of four Cs has been introduced as a more customer-driven replacement of four Ps.[1] And there are two four Cs theories today. One is Lauterborn's four Cs (consumer, cost, communication, convenience), another is Shimizu's four Cs (commodity, cost, communication, channel). Contents

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1 History 2 Four Ps: the producer-oriented model 3 Four Cs: the consumer-oriented model 4 Four Cs: in the seven Cs compass model 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

[edit]History The term marketing mix was coined in an article written by Neil Borden called “The Concept of the Marketing Mix.” He started teaching the term after he learned about it from an associate, James Culliton, who in 1948 described the role of the marketing manager as a "mixer of ingredients"; one who sometimes follows recipes prepared by others, sometimes prepares his own recipe as he goes along, sometimes adapts a recipe from immediately available ingredients, and at other times invents new ingredients no one else has tried.[2] [edit]Four

Ps: the producer-oriented model

The marketer E. Jerome McCarthy proposed a four Ps classification in 1960, which has since been used by marketers throughout the world.[1] • Product - A product is seen as an item that satisfies what a consumer needs or wants. It is a tangible good or an intangible service. Intangible products are service based like thetourism industry, the hotel industry and the financial industry. Tangible products are those that have an independent physical existence. Typical examples of mass-produced,

tangible...
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