CHAPTER 1 :- DEFINING MARKETING FOR THE 21st CENTURY
MARKETING DEBATE—Does Marketing Create or Satisfy Needs? Marketing has often been defined in terms of satisfying customers’ needs and wants. Critics, however, maintain that marketing does much more than that and creates needs and wants that did not exist before. According to these critics, marketers encourage consumers to spend more money than they should on goods and services they really do not need. Take a position: Marketing shapes consumer needs and wants versus marketing merely reflects the needs and wants of consumers. MY OPINION:Pro: With the vast amount of information available to marketers today and the emphasis on relational marketing, marketers are in more of a position to suggest needs and wants to the public. Certainly, not all consumers have all the needs and wants suggested by society today. However, with the vast amount of exposure to these societal needs and wants via the media, a substantial amount of consumers will, through mere exposure, decide that they “have” the same needs and wants of others. Marketers by their efforts increase peer pressure, and group thinking, by showing examples of what others may have that they do not. An individual’s freedom to choose is substantially weakened by constant and consistent exposure to a range of needs and wants of others. Marketers should understand that when it comes to resisting the pressure to conform, that individuals are and can be weak in their resolve. Marketers must take an ethical position to only market to those consumers able to purchase their products. Con: Marketing merely reflects societal needs and wants. The perception that marketers influence consumers’ purchasing decisions discounts an individual’s freedom of choice and their individual responsibility. With the advent of the Internet, consumers have greater freedom of choice and more evaluative criteria than every before. Consumers can and do make more informed decisions than previous generations. Marketers can be rightly accused of influencing wants, along with societal factors such as power, influence, peer pressure, and social status. These societal factors pre-exist marketing and would continue to exist if there was no marketing efforts expended.
MARKETING DISCUSSION Consider the broad shifts in marketing. Are there any themes that emerge to these shifts? Can they be related to the major societal forces? Which force contributed to which shift? ANSWER:The major themes that emerge in these broad shifts are technology, decentralization, and empowerment. As companies face increased global competition, they are beginning to increase their attention to all aspects of marketing and are beginning to encompass marketing as a corporate goal and not just a departmental function. The major societal forces at work: two-income families, increased technology, fewer firms, increased consumer education, and empowerment are forcing companies and marketers to shift their thinking about marketing and rethink their best business practices. Global competition: 1. From marketing does the marketing to everyone does the marketing. 2. From organization by products units to organizing by customer segments. 3. From being local to being “glocal”—both global and local. 4. Increase technology. 5. From making everything to buying more goods and services from outside. 6. From emphasizing tangible assets to emphasizing intangible assets increasing consumer expectations. 7. From relying on old market positions to uncovering new ones. 8. From building brands through advertising to building brands through performance and integrated communications. 9. From attracting customers through stores and salespeople to making products available online. 10. From selling to everyone to trying to be the best firm serving a well-defined target market. 11. From focusing on profitable transactions to focusing on customer lifetime value. 12. From focusing on the financial scorecard...
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