Marketing Communication

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Table of contents:

Introduction..........................................................................................................page 3

The Salience (or Weak-Force) Theory...............................................................page 3-4

Persuasion Theory (“strong force”)..............................................................page 4-5-6

Point of purchase.................................................................................................page 7

Why advertising is important?..............................................................................page 8

Conclusion............................................................................................................page 9

References/Bibliography................................................................................page 10-11

Introduction:

Philip Kotler said that: “advertising consists of non-personal forms of communication conducted through paid media under clear sponsorship”. Advertising is designed to evoke the demand of the potential customers. It can have a visual or an oral form with the aim of informing or influencing the audience. According to MacRury, I. (2009) “Advertising is one of the most obvious examples of human's deliberate effort at representation and communication”. In this report i will analyze the theories presended in the article “Justifying Our Advertising Budgets: The weak and Strong Theories” by Andrew Ehrenberg. Andrew Ehrenberg presents two different theories concerning to the advertising: the salience (or weak-force) theory and persuasion theory. With the first theory he says that advertising works as a weak force and has the aim of refreshing consumer awareness, maintaining their salience on the brand, through some stimuli or memory traces. In the persuasion theory advertising is described as a strong force that can persuade people, and that is constantly able to change what consumers do, think and feel. The main aim of persuasive advertising is brand-building and mostly short-term growth. The persuasive advertising has to persuade consumers that one's own brand is better than another one.

The Salience (or Weak-Force) Theory:

The main aim of advertising is seen as maintaining the numbers of your customers and providing publicity for the brand. The “salience theory” has the aim to be salient for the consumers but the advertising is not powerful enough to change what people believes. In his article Ehrenberg says that the key question is to how many consumers the brand is salient, but to be potentially salient the product has to be distinctive in it's name and logo. Miller and Berry (1998), unlike Ehrenberg, define “brand salience” as “the order in which brands come to mind or top-of-five awareness; that is, not what consumers think about brands but which ones they think about”.

Ehrenberg et al. affirms that ads don't need to mention the product differentations, because they has to be emphasized alone without being promoted in the ads. This concept is also demostrated through the ATR&N theory of Ehrenberg (awareness, trial, reinforcement and nudging) that explains the development of salience. This process is for fairly frequently-bought goods. The main concept of this theory is that people has to be awared of a brand. Thanks to this process the pubblicity can refresh the consumer's awareness and can help to develop it.

The ad to be effective has to be noted and the effect of this has to be in the medium-longer term (“ad now – buy later”), so advertisement can reinforce an enduring “trace” of the brand in the mind. In fact, there are some messages that we cannot virtually forget, for example, the red colour can remind the “Coca – Cola” brand.

Some authors as John Philips Jones (1990) in his article, according to the Weak Theory of Ehrenberg, affirmed that advertising is: capable of increasing people's knowledge and...
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