Marketing Communication

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11-Jan-13

Marketing Communication (MKT2043)

CHAPTER THREE

ANALYZING THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Prepared By; Siti Aisah Binti Haji Sapiee Assistant Lecturer MMC Sarawak References: Belch G.E & Belch M.A; Advertising and Promotion; An Integrated Marketing Communication Perspectives, 4 th Edition

PART 1
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

The Nature of Communication

Forms of Encoding

Verbal
• Spoken Word • Written Word • Song Lyrics
The communication process is complex, and often unsuccessful

Graphic
• Pictures • Drawings • Charts

Musical
• Arrangement • Instrumentation • Voices

Animation
• Action/ Motion • Pace/ Speed • Shape/ Form

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The Semiotic Perspective
Object (brand)

An Image Can Convey More Than Words
Summary Overview It is an example of a message that is conveyed primarily through an image, rather than words. The picture is an effective way for Coach to communicate it‘s intended message of eloquent simplicity, as well as classic design and American style.

Interpretant (intended meaning)

Sign/Symbol (image)

What is the symbolic meaning of this Levi ad?
The Model

Communication Channel
PERSONAL CHANNELS NONPERSONAL CHANNELS

The Clothes

The Setting

The Statement

Word of Mouth

Personal Selling

Print Media

Broadcast Media

The Tag Line

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Noise

Successful Communication
Select an appropriate source

Develop a properly encoded message

Select appropriate channel for target audience

Receive feedback

Identifying the Target Audience
Mass Markets and Audiences Markets Segments Niche Markets Individual and Group Audiences

The Response Process

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Obtaining Feedback
EFFECTIVENESS TESTS Circulation reach Listener, reader, viewer recognition Recall, checklists Brand attitudes, purchase intent Recall over time Inventory POP consumer panel Scanner data

Alternative Response Hierarchies
Topical Involvement

PERSUASION PROCESS Exposure/presentation Attention Comprehension Message acceptance/ yielding Retention Purchase behavior

High
Learning model

Low
Low involvement model Cognitive

Perceived Product Differentiation

Cognitive Affective Conative Dissonance/ attribution model

High

Conative

Low

Conative Affective Cognitive

Affective

Dissonance/Attribution Model

Low-Involvement Products

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The FCB Planning Model
Thinking Feeling

Developing Promotional Strategies
• Ad options based on the FCB grid
• Rational versus emotional appeals • Increasing involvement levels • Evaluation of a think-type product on the basis of feelings

High Involvement

1
Informative

2
Affective

The Thinker

The Feeler

Low Involvement

3
Habit Formation

4
SelfSatisfaction

The Doer

The Reactor

Connecting on an Emotional Level

Cognitive Response
A method for examining consumers‘ cognitive processing of advertising messages by looking at their cognitive responses to hearing, viewing, or reading communications Examines thoughts that are evoked by an advertising message Consumers write down or verbally report their reactions to a message

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A Model of Cognitive Response

Cognitive Response Categories
Product/Message Thoughts Counterarguments Support arguments Source-Oriented Thoughts Source derogation Ad Execution Thoughts Thoughts about the ad itself Affect attitude toward the ad Source bolstering

Elaboration Likelihood Model
Focuses on the way consumers respond to persuasive messages, based on the amount and nature of elaboration or processing of information Routes to attitude change

Celebrity Endorsers Can Be Peripheral Cues

Central route – ability and motivation to process a message is high and close attention is paid to message content

Peripheral route – ability and motivation to process a message is low; receiver focuses more on peripheral cues than on message content

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