1. FALSE STATEMENT OF FACT
Bisset v Wilkinson  AC 177
The plaintiff purchased from the defendant two blocks of land for the purpose of sheep farming. During negotiations the defendant said that if the place was worked properly, it would carry 2,000 sheep. The plaintiff bought the place believing that it would carry 2,000 sheep. Both parties were aware that the defendant had not carried on sheep-farming on the land. In an action for misrepresentation, the trial judge said: "In ordinary circumstances, any statement made by an owner who has been occupying his own farm as to its carrying capacity would be regarded as a statement of fact.... This, however, is not such a case.... In these circumstances... the defendants were not justified in regarding anything said by the plaintiff as to the carrying capacity as being anything more than an expression of his opinion on the subject." The Privy Council concurred in this view of the matter, and therefore held that, in the absence of fraud, the purchaser had no right to rescind the contract. Smith v Land & House Property Corp (1884) 28 Ch D 7
The plaintiff put up his hotel for sale stating that it was let to a 'most desirable tenant'. The defendants agreed to buy the hotel. The tenant was bankrupt. As a result, the defendants refused to complete the contract and were sued by the plaintiff for specific performance. The Court of Appeal held that the plaintiff's statement was not mere opinion, but was one of fact. Edgington v Fitzmaurice (1885) 29 Ch D 459
The plaintiff shareholder received a circular issued by the directors requesting loans to the amount of £25,000 with interest. The circular stated that the company had bought a lease of a valuable property. Money was needed for alterations of and additions to the property and to transport fish from the coast for sale in London. The circular was challenged as being misleading in certain respects. It was alleged, inter alia, that it was framed in such a way as to lead to the belief that the debentures would be a charge on the property of the company, and that the whole object of the issue was to pay off pressing liabilities of the company, not to complete the alterations, etc. The plaintiff who had taken debentures, claimed repayment of his money on the ground that it had been obtained from him by fraudulent mis-statements. The Court of Appeal held that the statement of intention was a statement of fact and amounted to a misrepresentation and that the plaintiff was entitled to rescind the contract. Although the statement was a promise of intent the court held that the defendants had no intention of keeping to such intent at the time they made the statement. Esso Petroleum v Mardon  QB 801
Esso's experienced representative told Mardon that Esso estimated that the throughput of petrol on a certain site would reach 200,000 gallons in the third year of operation and so persuaded Mardon to enter into a tenancy agreement in April 1963 for three years. Mardon did all that could be expected of him as tenant but the site was not good enough to achieve a throughput of more than 60,000-70,000 gallons. Mardon lost money and was unable to pay for petrol supplied. Esso claimed possession of the site and money due. Mardon claimed damages in respect of the representation alleging that it amounted to (i) a warranty; and (ii) a negligent misrepresentation. The Court of Appeal affirmed the finding of negligence under the principle of Hedley Byrne v Heller (1964). On the issue of warranty, Lord Denning MR stated: "... it was a forecast made by a party, Esso, who had special knowledge and skill. It was the yardstick (the "e a c") by which they measured the worth of a filling station. They knew the facts. They knew the traffic in the town. They knew the throughput of comparable stations. They had much experience and expertise at their disposal. They were in a much better position than Mr Mardon to make a...