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Chapter6: Advertising Design
1. How can the hierarchy of effects model and a means-ends analysis help an advertising creative design better commercials? 6steps of hierarchy of effects: Awareness-Knowledge-Liking-Preference-Conviction-purchase The six steps are sequential, although some experts question if they are really sequential. But, the basic model says they are sequential and that consumers spend some time at each step. For instance, before a consumer can like a brand, they first must be aware of it and develop some knowledge of it. To develop brand loyalty, consumers must go through all six steps. It is similar to attitude formation and the cognitive-affective-conative sequence. Cognitive component of attitude is the awareness and knowledge. Affective component of attitude is the liking, preference, and conviction. Conative component of attitude is the purchase. The second theory that it is important to consider is means-end theory. The basic concept is that a means, the message, leads to an end-state, or personal value. The model suggests six elements that are critical to ad design. Product attributes lead to consumer benefits. The leverage point connects that benefit to the personal value. Taglines are used to make an important and memorable point about the product. 2. How can leverage points and taglines increase advertising effectiveness? Leverage points are important. They move consumers from the benefits to the personal values. It links attributes to benefits to personal values. The leverage point should be associated with some component of attitude change. To be effective, ads need powerful leverage points. The leverage point can be a visual, part of a visual, a headline, a tagline or even copy in the ad. Most creatives spend considerable time thinking about and creating a good leverage point. Taglines are key phrases in an advertisement. They are designed to be memorable, unique, and offer a special meaning about the brand. Taglines can provide consistency across ads and across advertising campaigns. Taglines become identified with a specific brand and transcend any specific ad or ad campaign. Developing good taglines is important because it lives with that brand and is around a long time, such as Nike’s tagline “Just Do It.” While taglines can be changed, companies have to be careful not to confuse customers and convey conflicting messages about the brand. 3. What roles do visual and verbal images play in advertisements? The last theory of design to be considered is the relationship between the verbal and visual elements of an advertisement. Most ads seek to have a balance between visual and verbal, but usually one will be more dominant than the other. One reason for the change is that visual processing is easier for consumers to recall. Visuals are stored in the brain both as pictures and as words. Concrete images tend to be remembered better than abstract visuals. If consumers can create a mental image or picture, it actually is superior to seeing the visual, in terms of recall. So radio ads that can make listeners use their imagination and picture the product work very well. Visual esperanto is the ability of a visual to transcend cultures and languages conveying the same meaning. It is especially beneficial in international ads where advertisers want to convey the same message to every market in the world. Business-to-business ads in the past emphasized verbal content, but in recent years have moved to more visuals. 4. What are the seven main types of advertising appeals?

* Fear
* Humor
* Sex
* Music
* Rationality
* Emotions
* Scarcity
5. How can fear be used to create an effective ad?
Fear appeals are common and are used for products ranging from insurance, to home security systems, to deodorant. Fear appeals increase interest and are remembered by individuals. Severity is the level of consequence that will occur and vulnerability is the probability of...
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