Bren Phillip CarascoArizza Mae Delos Reyes
Niña Clarisse Monzales Roxanne Ocampo
* Are animals that inhabit the seas and oceans
* Some marine animals subsequently transferred to life in fresh water and on dry land, giving rise to freshwater and terrestrial fauna. * Some vertebrates that returned to the marine environment have retained their ties to land, leaving the sea for reproduction (pinnipeds and sea turtles). * Some birds, such as penguins and albatrosses, are permanently bound to the ocean. * The most diverse marine fauna is that of tropical shallows, particularly near coral reefs, which serve as habitats for numerous mollusks, crabs, echinoderms, and fishes. * As depth increases, marine fauna grows sparser. Only a few dozen invertebrate species have adapted to life at maximum depths (over 9–10 km).
* According to habitat and way of life, marine animals are classified as being either:
* PELAGIC- marine animals that are living or occurring in the upper waters of open sea.
1. Plankton- organisms incapable of swimming from current system to current system. They are effectively free-floating species although many have limited powers of locomotion, usually used to maintain their vertical position on the water column.
2. Nekton- is the stronger-swimming species that are capable of swimming between current systems and include fish, squid and whales. They are heavily exploited components of ecosystem
* BENTHIC- marine animals that are living in the depths of the oceans 1. Benthos- animals that live on the bottom (epibiota) or burrow into the substrate (infaunan)
Marine plants are divided into different divisions namely:
* Brown macroscopic algae (seaweed)
* Photosynthetic pigments are xanthophylls (gold) and chlorophyll. * Many in this division are known as kelp (very large)
* Red macroscopic algae (seaweed)
* Photosynthetic pigments are phycobilin (red-blue) and chlorophyll * Wide range of colors (red, brown, green)
* Green macroscopic algae (seaweed)
* Photosynthetic pigment is mostly chlorophyll
* Size ranges from 0.5m to 8m long.
* The marine flowering plants
* Have leaves, stems, and roots.
* Also have water conducting structures inside plant.
* Sea grasses are a great example.
Land Plants Adapted to Seawater
* Spartina or cord grass
- They form large, often dense colonies, particularly on coastal salt marshes, and grow quickly.
- Can excrete salt through salt glands.
- are various types of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics.
* also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open salt water or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides. * Salt marshes occur on low-energy shorelines in temperate and high-latitudes which can be stable or emerging, or submerging if the sedimentation rate exceeds the subsidence rate.
* Mangrove swamps are found in tropical and subtropical tidal areas. Areas where mangal occurs include estuaries and marine shorelines. * About 110 species are considered "mangroves", in the sense of being a tree that grows in such a saline swamp, though only a few are from the mangrove plant genus, Rhizophora. However, a given mangrove swamp typically features only a small number of tree species. Though the trees themselves are few in species, the ecosystem these trees create provides a home for a great variety of other organisms. * Mangrove swamps protect coastal areas from erosion, storm surge (especially during hurricanes), and tsunamis. The mangroves' massive root...