Marine Biodiversity is one of the assets of the Philippines, and because of this, the country bear the title of the “Centre of Marine biodiversity”. But as timed passed by, little by little, this asset is being disturbed because of human deeds, and if the authorities didn’t do something, the once known asset may turn into a burden for us. This study will focus on the effectiveness of the laws being implemented by the government and to test whether the laws are being implemented strictly or not.
There are four major problems encountered in the preservation of marine biodiversity. According to Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (2004) the main problems encountered in the preservation of the country’s marine biodiversity are Overfishing, Pollution, Deforestation, and Global climate change. Overfishing or over exploitation is the removal of marine living resources to levels that cannot sustain viable population. Ultimately, overfishing can lead to resource depletion and put a number of threatened and endangered species at risk for extinction. Jennings, S. and Kaiser, M.J. (1998) suggest that the rapid growth in human population has lead to an overexploitation of marine living resources to meet the increasing demand for food. All fishing activities, if not conducted in a sustainable non-destructive manner, can lead to overexploitation of marine living resources. Overexploitation of marine resources has major impacts on marine biodiversity as a whole, but target species are generally the most impacted. Pollution is the introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine biodiversity resulting in the deleterious effects of such nature as to endanger human health, harm to living resources and ecosystems. Only about 10% of sewage in the Philippines is treated or disposed of in an environmentally sound manner. The rest goes back to nature usually the sea. In this context of poor waste treatment and high population growth, water pollution is a growing problem for the country’s groundwater, rivers, lakes, and coastal areas. Polluting industrial material is also found in abandoned mining areas, with mercury pollution affecting water bodies in this area. These problems are unfolding in a context of poor planning, and weak management and enforcement of regulations. The Deforestation, after decades of deforestation, which has left about 3% of the original cover, forests continue to be under threat from agriculture and urbanization, illegal logging and forest fires. Sustained forest loss in the Philippines is causing severe soil erosion, and is threatening the country’s rich biodiversity. This is particularly worrying as many of the Philippines’ species, which depend on these forests, are endemic (they cannot be found anywhere else in the world). For example, of 180 native terrestrial mammal species here, about 61% are endemic. Inconsistent laws, inadequate regulations, weak enforcement and lack of funding are making forest conservation a major challenge. Global climate change is one of the problems encountered in the preservation of marine biodiversity. Global climate change affects the marine life such as, coral bleaching is one of the most visually dramatic effects of global climate change it is a stress response caused by high water temperatures that can lead to coral death, rising temperature affects the life of the marine species because they marine species live on a certain temperature so when there is rise in temperature fishes may tend to look for other places or they will suddenly die, rising sea levels will have serious impacts on marine ecosystems. The amount of light reaching offshore plants and algae dependent on photosynthesis could be reduced and acidic oceans that affect the fish, squid, and other gilled marine animals may find it harder to breathe, as the dissolved oxygen essential for their life becomes difficult to extract as water becomes more...
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