In the Middle Ages, higher education for women was frowned upon by many European countries and women were basically deprived of even the basic fundamentals reading, and writing arithmetic was out of the question. The only acceptable forum for educating women was nunneries, or convents. However, in Italy, where the Renaissance originated, women of knowledge were admired by men and were encouraged to expand their minds. This unusual attitude enabled Italian women to participate in the expansion and exploration of the arts, sciences, medicine, literature and mathematics (Unlu, 1995). One such lucky girl child was Maria Gaetana Agnesi, born of educated, wealthy parents in what is now modern day Milan, on May 16, 1718. The following will provide a basic biography of Maria Gaetana Agnesi and her contribution to the world in mathematics which included authoring several books; she wrote the first mathematics book by a woman that still survives today and she was the first woman appointed as a mathematics professor at any university (Women's History, no date). The importance of her contributions to mathematics will be briefly discussed in the conclusion. Maria Gaetana Agnesi was born to Pietro Agnesi and his first wife. She was the eldest of 21 children born to Pietro and his three wives. Her father was a wealthy silk trader and a professor of mathematics at the University of Bologna. Unlike most female children that were educated in convents, Maria was recognized by her father to be brilliant; thus, he did not send her away but instead provided very high quality tutors that nurtured her remarkable talents in language and mathematics. At the age of 9, Maria published a Latin discourse applauding higher education for women (O'Connor and Robertson, no date). She was recognized as a prodigy by the age of five - she spoke fluent French; by the age of nine she had mastered Latin, Greek, Hebrew, German and Spanish (O'Connor and Robertson). In her teen years,...

...Although there are many famous mathematicians that I do not know of, MariaGaëtanaAgnesi is an important mathematician of the Renaissance period.
Born on May 16, 1718, Maria was the oldest of twenty one. “She was the daughter of Pietro Agnesi who came from a wealthy family who made their money from silk.”(O’Connor and Robertson) Recognized as a child prodigy, early, Maria’s father made sure to provide the finest tutors for his daughter.
All of Maria’s tutors were men educated by the Church, which meant, at the time, the best education a person could get. By the age of five, Maria could speak both French and Italian and by the age of nine she mastered Latin and acquired Hebrew, Greek, Spanish, and German by age thirteen. By the time Maria was fifteen; her house became a regular meeting place for the most educated men of Bologne.
Maria would participate in the meetings and would find herself engaged in abstract philosophical and mathematical discussions. Although the meetings did not appeal to her, due to the fact that she was shy, she continued attending to meetings in order to please her father. But when her mother died, she decided not to attend the meetings and told her father that she had to take care of her twenty siblings because finding a housekeeper...

...he excelled in learning three languages: Hebrew, Latin and Greek. In that same year, he was first introduced to mathematics through his brother since his school did not offer mathematics. In Wallis autobiography, he explains how his brother showed him the basic rules of arithmetic, and Wallis quoted that mathematics “suited my humour so well that I did thenceforth prosecute it, not as a formal study, but as a pleasing diversion at spare hours...” (C. J. Scriba). After attending the school of Martin Holbeach for one year, Wallis was sent to Emmanuel College where he went on to retrieve his bachelors degree and masters degree while pursing his career in theology. (J J O'Connor and E F Robertson)
John Wallis was very active in the church, serving as a chaplain and minister for a couple years. Wallis then centered his focused around mathematics. Wallis wrote in his book entitled Algebra “that his interest in mathematics was first aroused in 1647 or 1648, when he chanced upon a copy of William Oughtred’s Clavis -mathematicae” (Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography). Wallis made contributions to trigonometry, calculus, and geometry; he was determined to learn and be conducive to all aspects of mathematics.
Wallis was known for many of his books, and discoveries in math, but his most important contribution to the development of Calculus would...

...MariaGaetanaAgnesiMariaGaetanaAgnesi (1719-1799). Born in Milan, she was a gifted scholar. She was a scientist, mathematician and later in her life she devoted herself to religious beliefs. She is most famous for the Witch of Agnesi.
Her father married 3 times and had 21 children, which she was the oldest child. Her first essay was published in Latin when she was only 9 years old. She wrote in defense of higher education for woman. By age 13 she learned and spoke more than 6 languages. In 1948 she wrote a book called "Instituzioni Analitiche" (the first surviving mathematical work written by a woman. In this book the plane curve is studied and was named the versiera, or turning curve. The versiera is now known as the "Witch of Agnesi" because a British mathematician, John Colson, translated the word versiera incorrectly. Early on this was read by Cambridge professor John Colson as "l'avversiera di Agnesi", where "avversiera" means "woman contrary to God" the word "witch" was mistranslated into English and was kept as the translation. At age 30, with the consent of the Pope, she was made an honorary staff member of the University of Bologna
This curve was studied previously by Guido Grandi in 1701 and was given the name “Verarsia”, which means "turning in every direction." Below is an example of the...

...Euclid and His Contributions to Mathematics
Euclid was an ancient Greek mathematician from Alexandria who is best known for his
major work,
Elements.
Although little is known about Euclid the man, he taught in a school that
he founded in Alexandria, Egypt, around 300 b.c.e. For his major study,
Elements,
Euclid
collected the work of many mathematicians who preceded him. Among these were Hippocrates
of Chios, Theudius, Theaetetus, and Eudoxus. Euclid's vital contribution was to gather, compile,
organize, and rework the mathematical concepts of his predecessors into a consistent whole, later
to become known as Euclidean geometry. Euclidean constructions are the shapes and figures that
can be produced solely by a compass and an unmarked straightedge. Although these tools were
indeed simple, their range of abilities seemed unlimited. Not only could they produce a multitude
of angles and lengths, but also elegantlooking regular polygons and a wide variety of 2D
shapes with desired area. These basic tools seemed to be able to do or produce anything. When,
after countless attempts, they were unable to solve the three classical problems of trisecting an
angle, doubling the cube, and squaring the circle, the Greeks were forced to reach out to new and
more complicated instruments. It was the inadequacy in these three problems that helped make ...

...Contribution of India in mathematics
The most fundamental contribution of India in mathematics is the invention of decimal system of enumeration, including the invention of zero. The decimal system uses nine digits (1 to 9) and the symbol zero (for nothing) to denote all natural numbers by assigning a place value to the digits. The Arabs carried this system to Africa and Europe.
1) Aryabhata is the first well known Indian mathematician. Born in Kerala, he completed his studies at the university of Nalanda. In the section Ganita (calculations) of his astronomical treatise Aryabhatiya, he made the fundamental advance in finding the lengths of chords of circles, by using the half chord rather than the full chord method used by Greeks. He gave the value of as 3.1416, claiming, for the first time, that it was an approximation. He also gave methods for extracting square roots, summing arithmetic series, solving indeterminate equations, and also gave what later came to be known as the table of Sines. He also wrote a text book for astronomical calculations, Aryabhatasiddhanta. Even today, this data is used in preparing Hindu calendars. In recognition to his contributions to astronomy and mathematics, India's first satellite was named Aryabhata.
2) Brahmagupta is renowned for introduction of negative numbers and operations on zero into arithmetic. His main work was...

...Cloning: A BriefDiscussion
History and Methods in Science
Hum 300
"Cloning represents a very clear, powerful, and immediate example in which we are in danger of turning procreation into manufacture" said Leon Kass. Cloning is very controversial topic in the world today. Some say cloning is playing God and some say cloning is correcting our mistakes. Whatever you may think scientist all over the world are studying the affects of cloning. Some of the most divisive talks of cloning are over the cloning of endangered species and cloning animals for consumption. This paper will review the each these topics in further detail.
Animal cloning is a fairly recent scientific advancement that's been on the radar since about 1996. Genetic engineers have developed a method that can be used to prevent the extinction of endangered species. Although it sounds complicated, the procedure is quite easy to understand. First the scientists obtain cells of one of the few remaining animals of the desired endanger species. Tissue samples from each of the animal are stored in vials, which are submerged and frozen in liquid nitrogen. The cell nuclei containing DNA are inserted into unfertilized eggs that have been extracted from a member of the species to be cloned. The eggs are then fused with the cells containing the DNA. Each egg-cell fusion eventually develops into an embryo. The resulting embryos are implanted in another animal from the desired...

...physiology in its performance. Topics of discussion will include: Mobility and Stability; Development of Force; Coordination of movement; Delivery of Energy; Maintenance of Working Muscles; Integration of Systems and Functions.
Introduction:
Often named “The King of all Exercises”, the squat is a complex movement which targets the Quadriceps, Hamstrings and the Gluteus Maximus muscles, amongst others. It is an exercise which Physiologists, Sports Scientists and Personal Trainers will all agree is a necessary component of any weight lifting or rehabilitation program. "[the squat] is capable of inducing more and faster muscle growth than any other exercise" (Dr. Fred Hatfield).
Advantages of the squat encompass more than muscle growth in the target muscles. Due to the nature of the squat, i.e. the intensity of the movement, it increases testosterone in the body by 1000% in some cases . This testosterone increase benefits all parts of the body when other excercises are performed. Similarly, this increase will help in the building of other muscels in the body.
Discussion:
There are some criticisms regarding the squat, which a minority of physiologists and doctors make. The argument against the squat is that the huge force on the knee joint and associated ligaments is dangerous. The people who believe this are often those associated with the treatment of squat injuries, so they have a rather narrow view of the exercise.
However,...

...Case study of Maria with nursing care plan
Maria Case Study
Christine Allen
University of Phoenix
NUR/403
Professor Woods
June 25, 2012
Case Study Grid
Nursing diagnoses may relate to physical, emotional, psychosocial, and cultural needs.
Name Christine Allen
|List five factors of patient history that |1.Maria is 20 years old and pregnant with 4 th child |
|demonstrates nursing needs: |2.Has feelings of great sadness |
| |3.Socially and emotionally isolated |
| |4.Poor nutrition due to lack of appetite |
| |5.She speaks little English(Alligood 2010) |
|State three nursing diagnoses using |Imbalanced nutrition less than body requirement as evidenced by poor eating|
|taxonomy of NANDA: |pattern due to loss of appetite. |
| |Impaired social interaction related to absence of available significant |
| |peers as evidenced by expression of feeling isolated. (Gulanick& Myers |
|...

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