According to Marchionini, information seeking is a "process driven by life itself" (Marchionini, 1995). “A process in which humans purposefully engage in order to change their state of knowledge” (Marchionini, 1995). Information seeking is an essential and ongoing activity where humans seek to address their needs through the information seeking process. In the context of the electronic environment, Marchionini identifies the "problem" as the kernel of information seeking; to address the problem, the seeker engages in search tasks in systems, whose outcomes are organized and contextualized by domains and settings (Marchionini, 1995). Notably, information seeking occurs in a wide range of environments, both online and offline (in earlier formulations, electronic or non-electronic).
1.2 Model of Information Seeking
The influence of new technology on information seeking is also providing a new set of alternative models that more accurately describe the information seeking process as a dynamic activity. Models of information seeking attempt to describe the process a user follows to satisfy an information need. The information seeking models in this section focus on the behavior of information seeking activities. There are a large number of models of information behavior (Fisher et al., 2005). These models demonstrate the difficulty of representing information needs; they also explain how the information seeking process reduces uncertainty regarding the information need. These models are Kuhlthau's Information Search Process, Ellis' Behavioral Model of Search, Wilson's Model of Information Behavior, Sonnenwald's Information Horizons, Allen’s Information Tasks (1996) and others.
1.3 Issues on information seeking model
According to David Johnson (1997), theoretical models of information seeking must address three key issues. First, models should provide a sound theoretical basis for predicting changes in information seeking behavior. Second, models should provide guidance for designing effective strategies for enhancing information seeking. Third, models should explicitly conceptualize information seeking behavior, developing rich descriptions of it. Finally, models should answer the “why” question; they should explicitly address the underlying forces that impel particular types of information seeking.
2. BACKGROUND OF MARCHIONINI
2.1 Biography of Marhionini
Gary Marchionini is Dean and Cary C. Boshamer Professor in the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina where he serves as Dean of the school. He formerly taught courses in human-information interaction, interface design and testing, and digital libraries. He heads the Interaction Design Laboratory at SILS. Marchionini earned a doctorate in curriculum development, focusing on mathematics education, and a master's degree in secondary mathematics education from Wayne State University in 1974 and 1981, respectively. He graduated with a bachelor's degree in mathematics and English from Western Michigan University in 1971. Before arriving at UNC, he was a faculty member at the University of Maryland for 15 years. He served on the faculty and as a researcher at Wayne State from 1978 to 1983 and taught mathematics at the East Detroit Public Schools for seven years. His research interests are on information seeking in electronic environment, human-computer interaction, digital libraries, information design and information policy. Marchionini received a Google Faculty Research Award in 2010 to support work on banner blindness in web search (with Felix Portnoy) He received an IBM Faculty Research Award for 2006-07 to work on digital video surrogate creation and metadata evaluation. He also received a Google Research Award to develop the Information in Life Video Series (2007-08) for the UNC-CH YouTube Educational Video Channel....