MAQASID AL SHARIAH
(Goals, purposes and objectives of the shariah)
Maqasid Al Shariah is branch of Usul Fiqh made systematic by Imam Syathibi as what Imam Syafi’ did to Jurisprudent. Syathibi was born as Abu Ishak Ibrahim bin Musa bin Muhammad Allakhami al-Gharmathi in Granada in 730H and died 790H or 1388. He lives during the reign of Bani Ahmar descendant of Sa’ad bin Ubadah a companion of the Prophet. He was one of the great scholars of Mazhab Maliki. Why Allah revealed the Shariah?
Scholar like Ibn Tarmiyya (661-728AH, 1263-1328 AD) said that Allah revealed the Shariah in order to achieve justice. Other scholars thought the Shariah is meant to achieve happiness. Al-Ghazali (450-505 AH / 1058-1111 AD) said the Shariah is for the achievement and realization of benefits for man on earth. If we look closely at the Shariah, the three objectives above we will find that they actually complement each other; happiness for mankind cannot be achieved without the existence of justice, and justice is an essential benefit and interest of people on earth. Therefore the Shariah was revealed for one universal purpose that is to realize man’s best interest on earth. Human by nature wants to be happy and to live as good life as possible, but this is not possible unless people cooperate with one another, and cooperation is impossible unless people live in peaceful life. Peace and security is not possible unless there is law and order to protect the rights of all equally, but rules and laws must originate from some authority, to enforce and to apply them equally. That is why Allah’s Shariah are revealed to achieve benefits (maslahah) in two ways. First by having these masalih (benefits), since people cannot bring about the benefits to mankind equally since people tends to discriminate each other, they kill each other, they steal from each other, therefore Allah Who provides absolute justice, Who legislates to mankind what is beneficial to all. Second, the Shariah is to...
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