The maoist problem in India has a long history. It is one of those movements which over the years have changed color from a pristine white to a dark shade of black. The roots of the problem lie not in some terrorist movement and neither is it the product of the state funded cross border terrorism. The roots of this problem lie in the Freedom struggle of India. Back in the heydays of the freedom struggle, the naaxals were a band of outlaws in and around the West Bengal, Bihar and Orissa border. They lived in the jungles and made military style guerrilla attacks on the British sponsored East India Company. They were the cowboys, who much like the Robin Hood of fables, took from the rich and gave to the poor. Their ranks were full of idealists and although they did not have a very literate cross-section within them, they made enough idealistic speeches to please the literate factions of the freedom movement. In fact in a lot of sections of society in India, they are still looked upon as the saviors! But the noble nature of the naxal movement became tarnished as the "maoist" problem took shape. After the freedom movement the various factions of the naxals receded into the jungles where the reach of law was poor. They wanted their own world and the lack of a functional police force in recently freed India - afforded them the opportunity to create ranks of foot soldiers from the rural populations.
As India matured as a country - the police force became more and more corrupt (reasons for that will be explored in a later article). This created a general dissatisfaction among most Indians and more so among the rural populations. Their lot was neglected totally in terms of infrastructure development projects and amenities never reached their homes. Moreover the police personnel became like small dictators - brandishing a vile incarnation of the law. They used the law to ruthlessly oppress and exploit the poor rural populations. This lead to a potent breeding ground for the "maoist" movement. Small factions from the naxal cadres joined to form the maoists and together they wreaked havoc on the police force. However as was the case with the police, the maoists gradually became more and more violent and authoritarian in their approach. And now they have become a national problem. Comprising a group of ragtag criminals and other anti-social elements, the maoists in their existence have proved that in many outlying areas democracy has totally failed in this country. The most important component of any solution to the Maoist problem has to be an effective police force in the affected areas. Without the effective implementation of the law, any attempt to rehabilitate the affected populations will fail. That is because the inefficiency of the laws is what the Maoists use as a tool to sell their way of life. The frustration of the rural populations with the local policemen and the judiciary is what fuels this fire called maoism. Another important concept in the fight against the insurgency is infrastructure development. Most of the outlying areas do not have good roads or other basic infrastructure. This leads to an accessibility problem of immense proportions. Aid cannot reach these areas in case of an emergency or calamity. A lot of times because of the bad roads the maoists are able to stop security forces in their tracks. Also the lack of basic infrastructure is the cause of frustration among the rural populations, and lend credence to the Maoists point of view - that the Indian government has forsaken the rural populations.
Education is the third most effective tool to use. The fight against the Maoists cannot be won in a day. Nor can they be removed after a military exercise of any sort. The illiteracy among the rural populations will ensure that the maoists keep receiving fresh recruits, who can easily be brainwashed with tall stories and promises. Also education helps to make the weaker sections of the rural population to feel...
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