I. Mao first got into radical issues in his home province of Hunan, because there were large spheres of influences there II. In 1920, Mao stumbled upon Professor Chen Tu-hsiu, China’s foremost Marxist. He gave Mao a position selling party literature in a bookshop III. Mao rose in status to provincial party leader soon afterward IV. In 1923, the Nationalist Party sought help and money from another source, so they joined the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The CCP was being given money from the Soviets V. Soon after the Nationalist Party leader’s (Sun Yat-sen) death, Chiang Kai-shek took leadership of the Nationalists and separated themselves from the CCP because they didn’t want China to turn into a Soviet satellite state VI. Chiang began killing off the CCP. Mao and the CCP went on a Long March, or retreat using guerilla tactics, to Yan’an to flee from the Nationalists. They set up their base there because it was in the north, closer to the Soviet Union, where they could get help VII. Chiang was very violent and killed many of his political opponents in the cities. This was more visible to the people than Mao’s violence in the countryside VIII. Most people knew that Chiang’s regime was corrupt, inefficient, and could not deal with inflation and famine IX. The Marco Polo Bridge Incident led to the full-scale invasion of the Japanese in 1937. This would last until the end of WWII in 1945. During this time: a. A truce was called between the Nationalists and CCP b. The Nationalists did the brunt of the fighting against the Japanese c. The Nationalists and CCP were given weapons from the U.S. to fight the Japanese d. The Red Army was built up and members of the CCP were built up by the “mass line” i. Trained communists were sent in groups into the communities, where they said they had come to listen to the desires and ideas of the people ii. On their return, the party would then learn what measures would appeal and adapt to their own policies which would be presented to the people e. To brainwash newcomers, Mao did the Yenan Terror during WWII: i. Used a Chinese KGB ii. Held denunciation rallies (you were forced to stand in front of peers and admit guilt (things that you did against the Communist ideology) even though you didn’t do them) iii. Singing, dancing, and humor were stopped iv. All types of torture were used 1. Whipping
3. Sleep deprivation
v. No press vi. Thought examination (you were forced to write down thoughts against the Communist ideology and accuse others of the same) f. After the Yenan Terror, Mao had gotten rid of enough opponents to claim himself supreme leader of the CCP X. After WWII, the Nationalists didn’t have enough manpower because China was so large in territory: a. Manchuria (rich in mineral and coal deposits) was turned over from the Soviets to the CCP b. CCP took over many areas that the Japanese formerly held XI. The Marshall Mission led to a cease-fire between the Nationalists and CCP, so the Nationalists demilitarized over a million troops: a. Many troops did not have strong ties to the Nationalists (because they were former warlord troops) b. They were not helped to integrate into society, so they joined the CCP...