China and Mao
Origins and nature of the authoritarian and single-party states * Conditions that produced authoritarian and single-party states * Mao Zedong came to power and created the People’s Republic of China after decades of civil and international war.
* The Communist party assumed power and utilized propaganda strategies to alter people’s opinions and outlooks. * Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support
* Communist ideology helped him convince his country that the PRC was superior to others. * He is officially held in high regard in China as a great revolutionary political strategist, military mastermind, and savior of the nation. Additionally, Mao was viewed as an intellectual poet philosopher and visionary. * Aims: to spread communism and also to copy what Stalin did but in a larger scale. * Support: During Mao's era China had the support of the USSR but that did not last for long. * Totalitarianism: the aim and the extent to which it was achieved * Eliminating Opposition
a) Mao started a series of land reform
i) " ““Shortly after the founding of the PRC, land reform, he "lurched violently to the left" with Mao laying down new guidelines for "not correcting excesses prematurely.” Mao insisted that the people themselves, not the security organs should become involved in the killing of landlords who had oppressed them. This was quite different from Soviet practice, in which the NKVD would arrest counterrevolutions and then have them secretly executed and often buried before sunrise. Mao felt that peasants who killed landlords with their bare hands would become permanently linked to the revolutionary process in a way that passive spectators could not be actual numbers killed in land reform are believed to have been lower, but did rank in the millions as there was a policy to select "at least one landlord, and usually several, in virtually every village for public execution." (Lynch) b) Three- Anti Movement and the Five-anti Movement
c) Following the consolidation of power, Mao launched the First Five-Year Plan (1953–58). The plan aimed to end Chinese dependence upon agriculture in order to become a world power.
Establishment of authoritarian and single-party states
* Methods: force, legal
* Legally gained support because of resistance to KMT (Nationalist party)
i. KMT inefficient and corrupt, did not improve factory conditions or peasant poverty, and put up little resistance against the Japanese ii. Communists gained strength and following while the war with Japan (1936) weakened the Nationalists * Civil War (Red Army
i. Communists (CCP) triumphed, largely due to determination/organization, also more popular ii. Communists (led by Mao) used Guerrilla warfare, and finally won in 1949 iii. The revolution was “peasant-based”, and had the commitment for future help from the Soviets through the Sino-Soviet alliance * Abuse of power
i. Mao used insane propaganda to keep support, through youth programs, his “Little Red Book” of Mao quotes, and full-size billboards with his face. ii. “Cult of Personality” to keep Mao the leader of the Communist party * Form of government. (left – and – right wing) ideology * Ideology:
i. Mao claimed to be the truest interpreter of the Marxist ideology, and wanted to keep his revolution as strictly Marxist-Leninist as possible. ii. Mao believed in a Marxism with Chinese characteristics iii. Cultural Revolution: Mao cut ties with Russia, and wanted to renew support and revolution for his Chinese Marxism.
i. Constitution of 1950: National’s People Congress took authority for legislation and was elected by the people (however, had to be Communist to run), the Chairman and the State Council were elected by Congress, and the Politburo was chosen by the State Council and made main decisions for the government. ii. All officials...