Manpower: Human Resource Management

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Introduction
Manpower Planning is the branch of Human Resources Management which ensures that an organization has suitable access to talent to ensure future business success. It allows corporate plans to be translated into actionable corporate Human Resources (HR) requirements. Bowey (1974) defined HR planning as “an effort to anticipate future business and environmental demands upon an organization and to provide the personnel to fulfill that business and satisfy those demands”. It also involves forecasting HR needs for the organization and developing appropriate plans to achieve those needs linked to other organizational functions e.g. strategic operational, investment planning etc ...access to talent including all potential access sources i.e. employment, contracting out, partnerships, changing business activities to modify the types of talent required, etc. is considered. By talent is meant the skills, knowledge, predisposition and ability to undertake required activities including decisions making.

External factors that influence and impact manpower planning in the Health Sector in Ireland:

The external forces are the forces which cannot be controlled by the organisation or the planning team.

Generally speaking, for a public sector organization external factors would include:
1/ Government policies:
Policies of the government like labour policy, industrial policy, policy towards reserving certain jobs for different communities and sons-of-the-soil etc affect Human Resource Planning.

2/ Supply and Demands:

The availability of manpower both within and outside the organization is an important determinant in the recruitment process. If the organisation has a demand for more professionals and there is limited supply in the market for the professionals demanded by the organisation, then the organisation will have to depend upon internal sources by providing them special training and development programs.

3/ Labour Market:
Employment conditions in any community with influence the recruitment conditions in it

4/Level of economic development:
Level of economic development determines the level of human resource development in the country and there by the supply of human resources in the future in the country. Economic issues:

a) Pay rate.
b) Housing cost.
c) Cost of living.
d) Economic development plan.
e) Corporate risk.
f) Skill shortage.

5/Information Technology:

Technology is the application of knowledge to practical tasks which lead to new inventions and discoveries. The invention of the latest technology determines the kind of human resources required. Information technology brought amazing shifts in the way business operates. These shifts include business process reengineering, enterprise resource planning and Supply Chain Management. These changes brought unprecedented reduction in human resource and increase in software specialists. Example: - Computer-aided de sign (CAD) and computer-aided technology(CAT) also reduced the existing requirement of human resource.

6/Political issues:
These can be summarized in the fallowing points:
* Accountabilities.
* Transparency.
* Equal opportunities.
* Diversity.
* Partnership working.
* Public versus private Finance.

7/Social factors:

* Changing employee expectation and needs by balancing the work environment. * Providing more sophisticated market.
* Changing demographics which means change in the profile of the work force in term of age, sex, literacy, technical input and social back ground . * Changing customer expectations and needs .

* Providing more flexible working opportunities ( full time / part time jobs).

8/Legislations:

• Employment legislation:
Which refers to all types of employment protection measures, whether grounded primarily in legislation, court rulings, and collectively bargained conditions of employment or customary...
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