Manipulation

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THE MANIPULATION OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR -ieditors ALBERT D. BIDERMAN Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc. HERBERT ZIMMER Associate Professor of Psychology University of Georgia John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York · London -iiTHE MANIPULATION OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR -iiiCopyright © 1961 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher, except for any purpose of the United States Government. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 61-5669 Printed in the United States of America -iv-

Contributors
ROBERT ROGERS BLAKE, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology, University of Texas R. C. DAVIS, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology, Indiana University LOUIS A. GOTTSCHALK, M.D. Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Research Coordinator, Department of Psychiatry, Cincinnati General Hospital LAWRENCE E. HINKLE, Jr., M.D. Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine in Psychiatry, New York Hospital — Cornell Medical Center

PHILIP E. KUBZANSKY, Ph.D. Chief Psychologist, Boston City Hospital MALCOLM L. MELTZER, Ph.D. Staff Psychologist, District of Columbia General Hospital JANE S. MOUTON, Ph.D. Social Science Research Associate, University of Texas MARTIN T. ORNE, M.D., Ph.D. Teaching Fellow, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University Medical School -v-vito CHARLES E. HUTCHINSON and HERMAN J. SANDER for their leadership in this area -vii-viii-

Acknowledgments
The editing of this book was carried out as a project of the Bureau of Social Science Research, Inc. Dr. Robert T. Bower, director of the Bureau, generously gave his time and talents to this project. Valuable assistance in editing the contributors' manuscripts was given by Nadine Pitts, Frank G. Davis, Merle Goldberg, and Doris F. Julian. The preparation of the chapters contained in this book was supported in part by the United States Air Force under Contract 18(600) 1797 monitored by the Rome Air Development Center of the Air Research and Development Command and under Contract AF 49 (638)-187 monitored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research of the Air Research and Development Command. The work of the editors was greatly facilitated by representatives of the Air Force, particularly Major Leo N. Brubaker and Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Work. The chapters by Dr. Martin T. Orne and by Dr. Lawrence E. Hinkle, Jr., draw upon work supported by the Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, Inc.

-ix-x-

Contents
Introduction 1

1

The Physiological State of the Interrogation Subject as it Affects Brain Function Lawrence E. Hinkle, Jr.

19

2

The Effects of Reduced Environmental Stimulation on Human Behavior: A Review Philip E. Kubzansky

51

3

The Use of Drugs in Interrogation Louis A. Gottschalk

96

4

Physiological Responses as a Means of Evaluating Information R. C. Davis

142

5

The Potential Uses of Hypnosis in Interrogation Martin T. Orne

169

6

The Experimental Investigation of Interpersonal Influence Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton

216

7

-xiCountermanipulation through Malingering Malcolm L. Meltzer

277

Author Index

305

Subject Index -xii-

316

. . . wollte nur forschen, Raetsel loesen, ein Stueckchen Wahrheit aufdecken. Dies mag vielen wehe, manchen wol getan haben, beides nicht meine Schuld und nicht mein Verdienst. Sigmund Freud in a letter to Romain Rolland, May 13 1926 *

Introduction — manipulations of human  behavior
In recent years, concern has been expressed, in both scholarly and popular literature, about the dangers of scientific developments that could be used to control and manipulate human behavior. The fear is frequently voiced that techniques have been developed to an extent which threatens fundamental values of Western civilization. Anxious alarms and dramatic speculations have overshadowed reports of sober efforts to determine which dangers are real and which imagined. This book...
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