Mangroves and Their Importance

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Intro to Environmental Issues
Mangroves And Their Disappearance
3/11/2013
Bsc Sem-II
Submitted By: Ammal Afroze

Submitted to: Mrs Almas Hamid

Table Of Contents
What are Mangroves? …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 Importance And Role Of Mangroves Ecosystem …………………………………………….. 2,3 Disappearance Of Mangroves …………………………………………………………………………. 3 Causes Of Disappearance Of Mangroves ………………………………………………………... 3,4 Effects Of Disappearance Of Mangroves ……………………………………………………....... 4 Present Condition Of Mangroves In Pakistan ……………………………………………......... 4,5 References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

What is Mangrove?
The term 'mangrove', is used to refer to the highly adapted plants found in tropical forest communities or the ecosystem itself. The term 'mangrove' may have been derived from a combination of the Malay word 'manggi-manggi', for a type of mangrove tree (Avicennia) and the Arabic 'el gurm', for the same, as 'mang-gurm'. Mangrove is a tree or shrub that grows in muddy, chiefly tropical coastal swamps. Generally exceeding one half metre in height. Mangrove plants vary genetically and those found on land are not of same types. They are of different types. An increase in mangroves has been suggested for climate change mitigation. Big groups of mangroves and other plants are called mangrove swamps, mangrove forests, and sometimes simply manga. The mangrove community is the biotic part of our ecosystem.

Importance And Role Of Mangrove Ecosystems:
Mangroves are not only important but crucial for the coastal areas. The most important role of mangroves is that they protect vulnerable coastlines from waves because they hold the soil together and prevent coastal erosion. Mangroves shield inland areas during storms and minimize damage. Example:

For example, learning from the 2005 tsunami in Asia, there were no deaths in the areas which had mangrove forests, compared to those areas without, which suffered massive causalities. Mangrove forests provide homes for several species of plants and animals. Migratory shorebirds and waders seek the mudflats for food. Birds establish large roosting and nesting sites in mangroves. Several species of fish, monkeys, and turtles find refuge there. The beaches along more mature undisturbed mangroves also serve as nesting sites for endangered sea turtles. Mangroves are fish nurseries as they serve as a source of food for fish and crabs that live in rivers and the shallow areas of the sea/ocean. And they provide a safe haven for juvenile fish, and crab located on coastline. Mangroves therefore contribute significantly in fishing industry and provide us with our fish resource.

ACT AS A FILTERING SYSTEM They act as filtering systems for the run-off and ground waters, clarify adjacent open water, which facilitates photosynthesis in marine plants. Mangroves also help to control other forms of pollution, including excess amounts of nitrogen and phosphorous, petroleum products, and halogenated compounds. Mangroves stop these contaminants from polluting the ocean waters through a process called rhizofiltration. TRAP DEBRIS AND SILT Mangroves trap debris and silt contributing to soil formation and stabilizing the coastline. SERVE AS HABITAT Their roots provide shelter for many marine and terrestrial animals, protecting them from ocean currents and strong winds. Many threatened or endangered species reside inside. PRODUCE NUTRIENTS Mangroves shed a large amount of leaf litter, being dropped and then broken down by bacteria and fungi which is made available to the food chain of aquatic animals. Therefore mangroves contribute to productivity in off shore water. SERVE AS NURSERY AND REFUGE For many juvenile fish and invertebrates such as spiny lobster, gray snapper, jacks and barracuda. Mangroves are the nesting grounds for many water birds. Disappearance Of...
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